Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

The effect of phosphorus addition, soil moisture, and plant type on soil nematode abundance and community composition

  • Soils, Sec 1 • Soil Organic Matter Dynamics and Nutrient Cycling • Research Article
  • Published:
Journal of Soils and Sediments Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Purpose

Environmental variables such as soil moisture and phosphorus (P) might influence above- and below-ground biodiversity. In this study, we investigated the rarely reported individual and interactive multifactor effects of soil moisture and phosphorus addition with the type of above-ground tree species (biological interactions) on the soil nematode community structure.

Materials and methods

We established a completely randomized experimental design with two plant types (N2-fixer and non-nitrogen fixer) and different combinations of water treatments and P additions (i.e., water with P addition, water only, drought with P addition, and drought only) in a greenhouse and investigated their effects on the soil chemical properties and nematode community. Soil samples were collected at the end of the experiment and were analyzed for soil moisture content (SM), available phosphorus (aP), nitrate nitrogen (NO3–N), ammonium nitrogen (NH4+–N), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), and nematode community. The following trophic groups were assigned to the nematodes: bacterivores (Ba), fungivores (Fu), omnivores–predators (Op), and plant parasites (PP). The channel index (CI), enrichment index (EI), maturity index (MI), genus richness (GR), and Simpson dominance (Ig) were adopted to indicate the indices of the nematode food web.

Results and discussion

Phosphorus addition and its interaction with water treatments had no statistically significant effects on the soil nematode community, but there were significant decreasing (p < 0.05) effects of P addition on the total density of nematodes of the N2-fixing tree under optimum water treatment. There were no significant interactive effects of P addition and water treatments on all the trophic groups, but plant type, water treatments, and their interactions significantly affected the density of most nematode trophic groups. The total nematode abundances of bacterivores, plant parasitic, omnivores, and enrichment index were significantly higher in the N2-fixers than in the non-nitrogen-fixing tree.

Conclusions

Soil nematode abundance and community composition were more affected by the plant type than by the P addition and its interaction with water treatments. Drought exerted adverse effects on the total density of soil nematodes, the dominant genera, and the trophic groups. This study demonstrated that the rate of drought impact hinges more on the type of tree and that N2-fixing tree could still maintain the soil food web structure irrespective of the environmental changes.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Biederman AL, Boutton WT (2009) Biodiversity and trophic structure of soil nematode communities are altered following woody plant invasion of grassland. Soil Biol Biochem 41:1943–1950

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bongers T (1990) The maturity index: an ecological measure of environmental disturbance based on nematode species composition. Oecologia 83:14–19

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cavagnaro TR (2016) Soil moisture legacy effects: impacts on soil nutrients, plants and mycorrhizal responsiveness. Soil Biol Biochem 95:173–179

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Cleland EE, Collins SL, Dickson TL, Farrer EC, Gross KL, Gherardi LA, Hallett LM, Hobbs RJ, Hsu JS, Turnbull L, Suding KN (2013) Sensitivity of grassland plant community composition to spatial vs. temporal variation in precipitation. Ecology 94:1687–1696

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dam M, Lasse B, Vestergard M (2017) Elevated CO2 increases fungal-based micro-food webs in soils of contrasting plant species. Plant Soil 415:549–561

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • De Vries FT (2012) Land use alters the resistance and resilience of soil food webs to drought. Nat Clim Chang 2:276–280

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dong WY, Zhang XY, Dai XQ, Fu XL, Yang FT, Liu XY, Sun XM, Wen XF, Schaeffer S (2014) Changes in soil microbial community composition in response to fertilization of paddy soils in subtropical China. Appl Soil Ecol 84:140–147

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ferris H, Bongers T, de Goede RGM (2001) A framework for soil food web diagnostics: extension of the nematode faunal analysis concept. Appl Soil Ecol 18:13–29

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gao D, Wang X, Fu S, Zhao J (2017) Legume plants enhance the resistance of soil to ecosystem disturbance. Front Plant Sci 8:1295

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gorres JH, Savin MC, Neher DA, Weicht TR, Amador JA (1999) Grazing in a porous environment: the effect of soil pore structure on C and N mineralization. Plant Soil 212:75–83

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • He L, Fang X, Meng G, Li G, Shao J, Chai Y, Kong J (2013) Effect of Alnus nepalensis cultivation on soil biological and physicochemical properties during restoration near a phosphate smelter in Kunyang, Yunnan Province, SW China. J Soil Sci Plant Nutr 13:355–366

    Google Scholar 

  • Hu Z, Xu C, McDowell NG, Johnson DJ, Wang M, Luo Y, Zhou X, Huang Z (2017) Linking microbial community composition to C loss rates during wood decomposition. Soil Biol Biochem 104:108–116

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Huang Z, Clinton PW, Davis MR, Yang Y (2011) Impacts of plantation forest management on soil organic matter quality. J Soils Sediments 11(8):1309–1316

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Huang Z, Wan X, He Z, Yu Z, Wang M, Hu Z, Yang Y (2013) Soil microbial biomass, community composition and soil nitrogen cycling in relation to tree species in subtropical China. Soil Biol Biochem 62:68–75

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Huang X, Liu S, Wang H, Hu Z, Li Z, You Y (2014) Changes of soil microbial biomass carbon and community composition through mixing nitrogen fixing species with Eucalyptus urophyla in sub-tropical China. Soil Biol Biochem 73:42–48

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Landesman WJ, Treonis AM, Dighton J (2011) Effects of a one-year rainfall manipulation on soil nematode abundances and community composition. Pedobiologia 54:87–91

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lei L, Per G, Wei Z, Tao Z, Hao MO (2015) Effects of nitrogen and phosphorus additions on soil microbial biomass and community structure in two reforested tropical forests. Sci Rep 5:14378

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Liu Y, Li X, Liu Q (2016a) Soil nematode communities in jujube (Ziziphus jujube Mill.) rhizosphere soil under monoculture and jujube/wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn) intercropping system, a case study of Xinjian arid region, northwest of China. Eur J Soil Biol 74:52–59

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liu T, Whalen KJ, Ran W, Shen Q, Li H (2016b) Bottom-up control of fertilization on soil nematode communities differs between crop management regimes. Soil Biol Biochem 95:198–201

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lu Z, Dong D, Yang B, Li L, Yu Y, Ouyang F, Ge F, Verma V, Men X (2016) Effects of crop species richness on the community of soil nematodes in an experimental agro-ecosystem. Eur J Soil Biol 73:26–33

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Murphy J, Riley JP (1962) A modified single solution method for the determination of phosphate in natural waters. Anal Chim Acta 27:31–36

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Olatunji OA, Luo H, Pan K, Tariq A, Sun X, Chen W, Wu X, Zhang L, Xiong Q, Li Z, Song D, Zhang A, Sun F (2018) Influence of phosphorus application and water deficit on the soil microbiota of N2-fixing and non-N-fixing tree. Ecosphere 9(6):e02276

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Olsen SR, Sommers LE (1982) Phosphorus. In: Page AL, Miller RH, Keeney DR (eds) Methods of soil analysis, part 2: agronomy. American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, pp 403–430

    Google Scholar 

  • Pan F, Li N, Zou WX, Han X, McLaughlin BN (2016) Soil nematode community structure and metabolic footprint in the early pedogenesis of a mollisol. Eur J Soil Biol 77:17–25

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pielou EC (1966) Species-diversity and pattern-diversity in the study of ecological succession. J Theor Biol 10:370–383

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Qin Z, Xie JF, Quan GM, Zhang JE, Mao DJ (2014) Impacts of the invasive annual herb Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. on soil microbial carbon source utilization and enzymatic activities. Eur J Soil Biol 60:58–66

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Raty M, Huhta V (2003) Earthworms and pH affect communities of nematodes and enchytraeids in forest soil. Biol Fertil Soils 38:52–58

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rivest D, Paquette A, Shipley B, Reich BP, Messier C (2015) Tree communities rapidly alter soil microbial resistance and resilience to drought. Funct Ecol 29:570–578

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Salamun P, Hanzelova V, Miklisova D, Sestinova O, Findorakova L, Kovacik P (2017) The effect of vegetation cover on soil nematode communities in various biotopes disturbed by industrial emission. Sci Total Environ 592:106–114

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sanaullah M, Blagodatskaya E, Chabbi A, Rumpel C, Kuzyakov Y (2011) Drought effects on microbial biomass and enzyme activities in the rhizosphere of grasses depend on plant community composition. Appl Soil Ecol 48:38–44

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Savin MC, Gorres JH, Neher DA, Amador JA (2001) Uncoupling of carbon and nitrogen mineralization: role of microbivorous nematodes. Soil Biol Biochem 33:1463–1472

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Simpson EH (1949) Measurement of diversity. Nature 163:688

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Song M, Li X, Jing S, Lei L, Wang J, Wan S (2016) Responses of soil nematodes to water and nitrogen additions in an old-field grassland. Appl Soil Ecol 102:53–60

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sun F, Pan K, Tariq A, Zhang L, Sun X, Li Z, Wang S, Xiong Q, Song D, Olatunji OA (2016) The response of the soil microbial food web to extreme rainfall under different plant systems. Sci Rep 6:37662

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tobita H, Yazaki K, Harayama H, Kitao M (2016) Responses of symbiotic N2 fixation in Alnus species to the projected elevated CO2 environment. Trees 30:523–537

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Townshend J (1963) A modification and evaluation of the apparatus for the Oostenbrink direct cottonwool filter extraction method. Nematologica 9:106–110

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Treseder KK, Vitousek PM (2001) Effects of soil nutrient availability on investment in acquisition of N and P in Hawaiian rain forests. Ecology 82:946–954

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Viketoft M, Bengtsson J, Sohlenius B, Berg MP, Petchey O, Palmborg C, Huss-Danell K (2009) Long-term effects of plant diversity and composition on soil nematode communities in model grasslands. Ecology 90:90–99

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wagg C, Bender SF, Widmer F, Van Der Heijden MGA (2014) Soil biodiversity and soil community composition determine ecosystem multifunctionality. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:5266–5270

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wang S, Pan K, Tariq A, Zhang L, Sun X, Li Z, Sun F, Xiong Q, Song D, Olatunji OA (2018) Combined effects of cropping types and simulated extreme precipitation on the community composition and diversity of soil macrofauna in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. J Soils Sediments. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-018-1998-z

  • Wei CZ, Zheng HF, Li Q, LU XT, Yu Q et al (2012) Nitrogen addition regulates soil nematode community composition through ammonium suppression. PLoS One 7:e43384

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Xiao H, Li G, Li D, Hu F, Li H (2014) Effects of different bacterial- feeding nematode species on bacterial numbers, activities and community composition. Pedosphere 24:116–124

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yeates G, Bongers T, De Goede R, Freckman D, Georgieva S (1993) Feeding habits in soil nematode families and genera—an outline for soil ecologists. J Nematol 25:315

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Yeates GW (2003) Nematodes as soil indicators: functional and biodiversity aspects. Bio Fertil Soils 37:199–210

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhao J, Wang F, Li J, Zou B, Wang X, Li Z, Fu S (2014) Effects of experimental nitrogen and/or phosphorus additions on soil nematode communities in a secondary tropical forest. Soil Biol Biochem 75:1–10

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

O.A OLATUNJI thankfully acknowledges the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the World Academy of Sciences (CAS-TWAS) for the fellowship.

Funding

This study was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (Grant Nos. 2016YFC0502101 and 2017YFC0505000), the Ministry of Sciences and Technology of China (Grant No. 2015BAD07B050304), and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 31370632 and 31500517).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kaiwen Pan.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Responsible editor: Zhiqun Huang

Electronic supplementary material

ESM 1

(DOCX 27 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Olatunji, O.A., Gong, S., Tariq, A. et al. The effect of phosphorus addition, soil moisture, and plant type on soil nematode abundance and community composition. J Soils Sediments 19, 1139–1150 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-018-2146-5

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-018-2146-5

Keywords

Navigation