Journal of Soils and Sediments

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 159–170 | Cite as

Responses of Bougainvillea spectabilis to elevated atmospheric CO2 under galaxolide (HHCB) pollution and the mechanisms of its rhizosphere metabolism

  • Minzhe Zhang
  • Jianv LiuEmail author
  • Wenjing Wang
  • Yanyu Bao
Soils, Sec 2 • Global Change, Environ Risk Assess, Sustainable Land Use • Research Article



Due to the discovery of synthetic musks in soil and the gradual increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2), it is important to reveal the potential implications of these compounds for bioremediation systems. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the combined influence of galaxolide (HHCB) and elevated CO2 on an ornamental remediation plant.

Materials and methods

We conducted pot experiments with Bougainvillea spectabilis, an ornamental remediation plant, in which the biomass, HHCB and chlorophyll contents, and rhizosphere metabolism of the plants were analyzed.

Results and discussion

We showed that B. spectabilis exhibited high tolerance under combined HHCB and elevated CO2 stresses. The addition of HHCB alone to the soil did not significantly reduce the biomass components of B. spectabilis, whereas the presence of elevated CO2 (750 μL L−1) alone showed a relatively strong ability to increase plant biomass, especially that of the leaves. An elevated CO2 concentration stimulated the absorption of low doses of HHCB by the roots. Regarding the root metabolites of B. spectabilis, carbohydrates and organic acids were highly correlated with HHCB concentration, and amino acids were well correlated with CO2 concentration.


Our study indicates that B. spectabilis may be well suited to remove HHCB from contaminated soil under elevated CO2 levels, and the root metabolism of this plant provides information about HHCB contamination and elevated CO2 conditions.


Bougainvillea spectabilis HCB Elevated CO2 Phytoremediation Rhizosphere metabolism 


Funding information

This work was financially supported by the National Natural Foundation of Science (No. 31770547, 41471411) and the Tianjin Municipal Science and Technology Commission (Grant 16JCZDJC39200).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Minzhe Zhang
    • 1
  • Jianv Liu
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Wenjing Wang
    • 1
  • Yanyu Bao
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.College of Environmental Science and EngineeringNankai UniversityTianjinChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental CriteriaMinistry of EducationTianjinChina
  3. 3.Tianjin Key Laboratory of Environmental Remediation and Pollution ControlTianjinChina

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