The quantification of spatial patterns of soil respiration (RS) is an important step in modelling soil carbon budgets. This study aims to characterise the spatial variability of RS using traditional and geostatistical analyses in a mature temperate forest during the growing season, with emphases on temporal variation in the spatial patterns and soil properties and stand structural parameters driving the variability of RS.
Materials and methods
RS, soil temperature and soil water content were sampled at 780 positions in a 9.12-ha permanent plot in a spruce-fir valley forest in the spring, summer and autumn of 2015. Furthermore, edaphic properties were measured adjacent to each sampling point, and all trees with DBH (diameter at breast height of tree) greater than 1 cm were mapped in the plot.
Results and discussion
RS showed strong spatial variation across the three measurement campaigns, with the autocorrelation length ranging from 10 to 17 m. The spatial variability of RS in the spring period was relatively higher than that of summer and autumn. Soil water content was confirmed to be the primary factor driving spatial RS, followed by soil temperature, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, C:N, pH and the maximum DBH within radius of 4 m of sampling points. The multiple regression model fitted by soil properties and stand structural parameters could account for 11–32% of the spatial variation of RS. However, the involved factors in the regression model varied with season, and soil temperature was more important in controlling the spatial variability of RS in the spring period.
The study highlights that soil water content and soil temperature play the most important role in determining the spatial patterns of RS across the growing season.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
ArchMiller AA, Samuelson LJ, Li Y (2016) Spatial variability of soil respiration in a 64-year-old longleaf pine forest. Plant Soil 403:419–435
Bond-Lamberty B, Thomson A (2010) Temperature-associated increases in the global soil respiration record. Nature 464:579–582
Borchard N, Schirrmann M, Cv H, Schmidt M, Baatz R, Firbank L, Vereecken H, Herbst M (2015) Spatio-temporal drivers of soil and ecosystem carbon fluxes at field scale in an upland grassland in Germany. Agric Ecosyst Environ 211:84–93
Cambardella CA, Elliott ET (1994) Carbon and nitrogen dynamics of soil organic matter fractions from cultivated grassland soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 58:123
Dai S, Li L, Ye R, Zhu Barker X, Horwath WR (2017) The temperature sensitivity of organic carbon mineralization is affected by exogenous carbon inputs and soil organic carbon content. Eur J Soil Biol 81:69–75
Darenova E, Pavelka M, Macalkova L (2016) Spatial heterogeneity of CO2 efflux and optimization of the number of measurement positions. Eur J Soil Biol 75:123–134
Das Gupta S, Mackenzie MD (2016) Spatial patterns of soil respiration links above and belowground processes along a boreal aspen fire chronosequence. PLoS One 11:e0165602
Dore S, Fry DL, Stephens SL (2014) Spatial heterogeneity of soil CO2 efflux after harvest and prescribed fire in a California mixed conifer forest. For Ecol Manag 319:150–160
Farrar J, Hawes M, Jones D, Lindow S (2003) How roots control the flux of carbon to the rhizosphere. Ecology 84:827–837
Ferré C, Castrignanò A, Comolli R (2015) Assessment of multi-scale soil-plant interactions in a poplar plantation using geostatistical data fusion techniques: relationships to soil respiration. Plant Soil 390:95–109
González-Real MM, Egea G, Martin-Gorriz B, Nortes PA, Baille A (2017) Spatial variability of soil CO2 efflux in drip-irrigated old and young citrus orchards and its dependence on biotic and abiotic factors. Geoderma 294:29–37
Greenway H, Gibbs J (2003) Review: mechanisms of anoxia tolerance in plants. II. Energy requirements for maintenance and energy distribution to essential processes. Funct Plant Biol 30:999–1036
Grimshaw H, Allen S, Parkinson J (1989) Nutrient elements. In: Allen S (ed) Chemical analysis of ecological materials. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp 81-159
Han G, Zhou G, Xu Z, Yang Y, Liu J, Shi K (2007) Biotic and abiotic factors controlling the spatial and temporal variation of soil respiration in an agricultural ecosystem. Soil Biol Biochem 39:418–425
Han M, Shi B, Jin G (2016) Temporal variations of soil respiration at multiple timescales in a spruce-fir valley forest, northeastern China. J Soils Sediments 16:2385–2394
Hanpattanakit P, Leclerc MY, McMillan AMS, Limtong P, Maeght J-L, Panuthai S, Inubushi K, Chidthaisong A (2015) Multiple timescale variations and controls of soil respiration in a tropical dry dipterocarp forest, western Thailand. Plant Soil 390:167–181
Herbst M, Bornemann L, Graf A, Welp G, Vereecken H, Amelung W (2011) A geostatistical approach to the field-scale pattern of heterotrophic soil CO2 emission using covariates. Biogeochemistry 111:377–392
Hill PW, Garnett MH, Farrar J, Iqbal Z, Khalid M, Soleman N, Jones DL (2015) Living roots magnify the response of soil organic carbon decomposition to temperature in temperate grassland. Glob Chang Biol 21:1368–1375
Jin G, Liu Z, Cai H, Tai B, Jiang X, Liu Y (2009) Coarse woody debris (CWD) in a spruce-fir valley forest in Xiao xingan mountains, China (in Chinese with English abstract). J Nat Resour 24:1256–1266
Jing Z, Chen R, Wei S, Feng Y, Zhang J, Lin X (2017) Response and feedback of C mineralization to P availability driven by soil microorganisms. Soil Biol Biochem 105:111–120
Jurasinski G, Jordan A, Glatzel S (2012) Mapping soil CO2 efflux in an old-growth forest using regression kriging with estimated fine root biomass as ancillary data. For Ecol Manag 263:101–113
Katayama A, Kume T, Komatsu H, Ohashi M, Nakagawa M, Yamashita M, Otsuki K, Suzuki M, Kumagai TO (2009) Effect of forest structure on the spatial variation in soil respiration in a Bornean tropical rainforest. Agric For Meteorol 149:1666–1673
Kukumägi M, Ostonen I, Uri V, Helmisaari HS, Kanal A, Kull O, Lõhmus K (2016) Variation of soil respiration and its components in hemiboreal Norway spruce stands of different ages. Plant Soil 414:265–280
Li D, Fan J, Zhang X, Xu X, He N, Wen X, Sun X, Blagodatskaya E, Kuzyakov Y (2017) Hydrolase kinetics to detect temperature-related changes in the rates of soil organic matter decomposition. Eur J Soil Biol 81:108–115
Liu C, Liu Y, Jin G (2014) Seasonal dynamics of soil microbial biomass in six forest types in Xiaoxing’an mountains, China (in Chinese with English abstract). Acta Ecol Sin 34:1–9
Luan J, Liu S, Zhu X, Wang J, Liu K (2012) Roles of biotic and abiotic variables in determining spatial variation of soil respiration in secondary oak and planted pine forests. Soil Biol Biochem 44:143–150
Luo Y, Zhou X (2006) Soil respiration and the environment. Academic Press/Elsevier, San Diego
Martin JG, Bolstad PV (2009) Variation of soil respiration at three spatial scales: components within measurements, intra-site variation and patterns on the landscape. Soil Biol Biochem 41:530–543
Meyer N, Welp G, Bornemann L, Amelung W (2017) Microbial nitrogen mining affects spatio-temporal patterns of substrate-induced respiration during seven years of bare fallow. Soil Biol Biochem 104:175–184
Moyes AB, Bowling DR (2012) Interannual variation in seasonal drivers of soil respiration in a semi-arid Rocky Mountain meadow. Biogeochemistry 113:683–697
Ngao J, Epron D, Delpierre N, Bréda N, Granier A, Longdoz B (2012) Spatial variability of soil CO2 efflux linked to soil parameters and ecosystem characteristics in a temperate beech forest. Agric For Meteorol 154-155:136–146
Prolingheuer N, Scharnagl B, Graf A, Vereecken H, Herbst M (2014) On the spatial variation of soil rhizospheric and heterotrophic respiration in a winter wheat stand. Agric For Meteorol 195:24–31
Pu X, Zhu Y, Jin G (2017) Effects of local biotic neighbors and habitat heterogeneity on seedling survival in a spruce-fir valley forest, northeastern China. Ecol Evol 7:4582–4591
Raich JW, Potter CS, Bhagawati D (2002) Interannual variability in global soil respiration, 1980-94. Glob Chang Biol 8:800–812
Reichstein M, Rey A, Freibauer A, Tenhunen J, Valentini R, Banza J, Casals P, Cheng Y, Grünzweig JM, Irvine J, Joffre R, Law BE, Loustau D, Miglietta F, Oechel W, Ourcival JM, Pereira JS, Peressotti A, Ponti F, Qi Y, Rambal S, Rayment M, Romanya J, Rossi F, Tedeschi V, Tirone G, Xu M, Yakir D (2003) Modeling temporal and large-scale spatial variability of soil respiration from soil water availability, temperature and vegetation productivity indices. Glob Biogeochem Cycles 17:1104
Savage K, Davidson EA, Tang J (2013) Diel patterns of autotrophic and heterotrophic respiration among phenological stages. Glob Chang Biol 19:1151–1159
Schiedung H, Tilly N, Hütt C, Welp G, Brüggemann N, Amelung W (2017) Spatial controls of topsoil and subsoil organic carbon turnover under C3–C4 vegetation change. Geoderma 303:44–51
Schliemann SA, Bockheim JG (2014) Influence of gap size on carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical cycling in northern hardwood forests of the upper peninsula, Michigan. Plant Soil 377:323–335
Schmidt MW, Torn MS, Abiven S, Dittmar T, Guggenberger G, Janssens IA, Kleber M, Kogel-Knabner I, Lehmann J, Manning DA, Nannipieri P, Rasse DP, Weiner S, Trumbore SE (2011) Persistence of soil organic matter as an ecosystem property. Nature 478:49–56
Shi B, Gao W, Cai H, Jin G (2016) Spatial variation of soil respiration is linked to the forest structure and soil parameters in an old-growth mixed broadleaved-Korean pine forest in northeastern China. Plant Soil 400:263–274
Smith KA, Ball T, Conen F, Dobbie KE, Massheder J, Rey A (2003) Exchange of greenhouse gases between soil and atmosphere: interactions of soil physical factors and biological processes. Eur J Soil Sci 54:779–791
Søe ARB, Buchmann N (2005) Spatial and temporal variations in soil respiration in relation to stand structure and soil parameters in an unmanaged beech forest. Tree Physiol 25:1427–1436
Soil Survey Staff (2014) Keys to soil taxonomy, 12th edn. USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington, DC
Suchewaboripont V, Ando M, Iimura Y, Yoshitake S, Ohtsuka T (2015) The effect of canopy structure on soil respiration in an old-growth beech-oak forest in central Japan. Ecol Res 30:867–877
Suchewaboripont V, Ando M, Yoshitake S, Iimura Y, Hirota M, Ohtsuka T (2017) Spatial upscaling of soil respiration under a complex canopy structure in an old-growth deciduous forest, central Japan. Forests 8:36
Vitousek PM, Porder S, Houlton BZ, Chadwick OA (2010) Terrestrial phosphorus limitation: mechanisms, implications, and nitrogen–phosphorus interactions. Ecol Appl 20:5–15
Wang C, Yang J, Zhang Q (2006) Soil respiration in six temperate forests in China. Glob Chang Biol 12:2103–2114
Xu M, Qi Y (2001) Soil-surface CO2 efflux and its spatial and temporal variations in a young ponderosa pine plantation in northern California. Glob Chang Biol 7:667–677
Zhou L, Zhou X, Shao J, Nie Y, He Y, Jiang L, Wu Z, Hosseini Bai S (2016) Interactive effects of global change factors on soil respiration and its components: a meta-analysis. Glob Chang Biol 22:3157–3169
Zhou Z, Wang C, Jin Y (2017) Stoichiometric responses of soil microflora to nutrient additions for two temperate forest soils. Biol Fertil Soils 53:397–406
Zhu B, Gutknecht JLM, Herman DJ, Keck DC, Firestone MK, Cheng W (2014) Rhizosphere priming effects on soil carbon and nitrogen mineralization. Soil Biol Biochem 76:183–192
This work was financially supported by Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities (2572017EA02) and the Program for Changjiang Scholars and Innovative Research Team in Universities (IRT_15R09). We are grateful to the comments and suggestions from the editor and two anonymous reviewers. We would like to express gratitude to our colleagues who provided assistance with the field work.
Responsible editor: Yongfu Li
Electronic supplementary material
About this article
Cite this article
Han, M., Shi, B. & Jin, G. Spatial patterns of soil respiration in a spruce-fir valley forest, Northeast China. J Soils Sediments 19, 10–22 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-018-2018-z
- Edaphic properties
- Soil moisture
- Soil respiration
- Soil temperature
- Spatial variability
- Temporal change
- Tree size