Effects of artificial aeration and iron inputs on the transformation of carbon and phosphorus in a typical wetland soil
- 69 Downloads
Artificial aeration changes the redox conditions at the soil surface. The introduction of iron (Fe) into wetlands can influence carbon (C) and phosphorus (P) cycling under the fluctuating redox conditions. However, artificial Fe introduced into wetlands is uncommon, and there are no Fe dose guidelines. We compared aerobic and anaerobic conditions to test the hypothesis that Fe addition can, although redox-dependent, affect P forms and the coupling of organic C.
Materials and methods
Twenty-four intact soil cores were collected randomly from a lacustrine wetland of Lake Xiaoxingkai. And representative and homogeneous seedlings of Glyceria spiculosa were collected. The incubation was designed with two treatment factors: Fe/P ratio (5 or 10) and high and low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations (> 6 and < 2 mg L−1, respectively). Four groups with three replicates were separated randomly and labeled as aerobic + plant treatment, anaerobic + plant treatment, and aerobic or anaerobic treatment (control).
Results and discussion
The DO concentrations were stratified, decreasing with soil depth and increasing with time, especially under aerobic conditions. The Eh values generally increased with fluctuations under aerobic conditions. The artificial aeration substantially changed the redox environment at the water–soil interface. Of the total P, 45% was in the reactive Fe-bound P, indicating that Lake Xiaoxingkai had high internal P loading. No significant differences were observed in total Fe, amorphous Fe, and organic C at the soil surface between the two Fe/P ratios; however, a significant difference in free Fe was observed. And soil amorphous Fe was found to be a significant correlation with soil organic C, indicating that iron oxides were related with the soil chemical properties.
After short-term incubation, Fe addition can affect the cycling of major elements in wetlands, although this effect is redox dependent. Excessive Fe doses may result in regional environmental risks, such as eutrophication and C sinks of wetland ecosystems. Large-scale controlled experiments are needed to fully understand the behaviors of soil elements in wetlands.
KeywordsArtificial aeration Chemical elements Fe/P concentration ratios Wetland soil
This research was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFC0500408), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41271107, 41471079), and the Northeast Institute of Geography and Agroecology, CAS (IGA-135-05). And we would like to thank LetPub (www.letpub.com) for providing linguistic assistance during the preparation of this manuscript.
- Cooke GD (1993) Restoration and management of lakes and reservoirs. Lewis Publishers, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
- Gao C, Zhang TL, Wu WD (2002) Phosphorus sorption and release of paddy soil: effect of alternation of oxidized and reduced conditions (in Chinese). Acta Pedol Sin 39(4):542–549Google Scholar
- Hou CC (2012) Effects of hydrological changes on soil carbon sequestration of marsh in Sanjiang Plain (in Chinese). Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing GTID:1111330362466061Google Scholar
- Jia XY, Li JM (2011) Study on soil phosphorus availability and its relation to the soil properties in 14 soils from different sites in China (in Chinese). Soil Ferti Sci China 6:76–82Google Scholar
- Jiang M, Lu XG, Yang Q, Tong SZ (2006) Iron biogeochenical cycle and its environmental effect in wetlands (in Chinese). Acta Pedol Sin 43:493–499Google Scholar
- Kleber M, Mikutta R, Torn MS, Jahn R (2005) Poorly crystalline mineral phases protect organic matter in acid subsoil horizons. Eur J Soil Sci 56(6):71–725Google Scholar
- Lu RK (2000) Soil agro-chemistrical analysis. China Agriculture Scientech Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar
- Piao DX, Wang FK (2011) Environmental conditions and the protection counter measures for waters of Lake Xingkai (in Chinese). J Lake Sci 23(2):196–202Google Scholar
- Su L, Zhang YS, Lin XY (2001) Changes of iron oxides and phosphorus adsorption-desorption in paddy soils under alternating flooded and dried conditions (in Chinese). Plant Nutr Ferti Sci 7(4):410–415Google Scholar
- Wang GG, Fu WL, Wei CF, Yuan H (2008a) Iron transformation and phosphorus availability in a drawdown area of three gorges reservoir (in Chinese). Chinese J Soil Sci 39(1):234–238Google Scholar
- Yu SL (2014) The research on phosphorus release characteristics of surficial sediment and its effects on eutrophication in Lake Xiaoxingkai (in Chinese). Chinese Academy of Sciences, BeijingGoogle Scholar
- Zhang LL, Wang LY, Jia XY, Jiang M, Lu XG, Zou YC (2017) Laboratory simulation experiment on phosphorus removal of phosphorus-rich water with aeration and Carex pseudocuraica planting (in Chinese). Wetl Sci 15:157–162Google Scholar
- Zhu XP, Cao CY, Yin JL, Zhou CL (1993) Effect of submergence on iron transformation and phosphorus availability in calcareous soils. Pedosphere 3(4):331–339Google Scholar
- Zou YC, Yu XF, Huo LL, Lu XG, Jiang M (2012) Waterborne iron migration by groundwater irrigation pumping in a typical irrigation district of Sanjiang Plain. Environ Sci 33(4):1209–1215Google Scholar