Prediction of the distribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in the metal(loid)-contaminated soils by the arsenic concentration in the fronds of Pteris vittata L.
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The ecological role of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) has been widely reported to help Pteris vittata, an arsenic (As) hyperaccumulator, to effectively clean up As from contaminated environments. However, there is little information available on AMF community structures of in natural As-contaminated soils and their changing pattern along soil As concentration gradient, as well as their best predictor of environmental variables.
Materials and methods
In this study, soil samples from four sites with different As concentrations in Hunan Province of China were collected. Illumina MiSeq sequencing was used to investigate AMF community in the rhizosphere soils of P. vittata. Redundancy analysis (RDA) and mantel tests were used to determine the significance of environmental variables that may affect AMF community composition.
Results and discussion
A total of 95 OTUs were identified, with Glomeraceae, Gigasporaceae, Acaulosporaceae, and Scutellosporaceae shared by all sampling sites. Among Glomeraceae and Glomus were the dominant family and genus, respectively. The highest value of Shannon index was found when As concentration in soil was 147.92 mg/kg (site 2, p < 0.05). RDA and mantel tests indicated that As concentrations in fronds of P. vittata (As-F) and bioconcentration factors (BCF) were significantly related to the succession of AMF community.
As-F was the key environmental variable that can predict the shifts of AMF community structures in the rhizosphere of P. vittata at As-contaminated sites. This research offers preliminary insight into AMF communities in the rhizosphere of P. vittata, which is of great help toward predicting and managing microbiome for the better agroecosystem outcomes.
KeywordsArsenic Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Biodiversity Pteris vittata
This work was supported by the State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture (Y412201436), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Project No. 41671267, 41430859), the CAS Strategic Priority Research Program Grant (XDB15020103), National Key R&D Program (2016YFD0200306), National Basic Research Program (973 Program) (2014CB954500), and Knowledge Innovation Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. ISSASIP1639). The authors thank the editor, two anonymous reviews, and Dr. Youzhi Feng (State Key Laboratory Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences) for giving many suggestions to improve this manuscript.
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