Seasonal variation rather than stand age determines bacterial diversity in the rhizosphere of wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) associated with soil degradation
- 113 Downloads
Soil degradation occurs in wolfberry (Lycium barbarum L.) fields with increasing stand age, but the effect of stand age on rhizosphere microbial communities is unclear. We examined the seasonal variation of rhizosphere bacterial communities under long-term cultivation of L. barbarum.
Materials and methods
We determined surface (0–20 cm) and subsurface (20–40 cm) soil properties in L. barbarum rhizosphere at four stand ages (3–15 years) across three growth seasons (spring–autumn). Soil bacterial communities were characterized by 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing.
Results and discussion
Soil nutrient availability in the surface was higher than that in the subsurface. Total soil organic carbon (TOC), nitrogen (TN), and phosphorus (TP) occurred at the highest levels in the summer across different stand ages. Soil bacterial diversity in the autumn was lower than that in the spring and summer. More diverse communities were found at stand ages of 3 and 6 years compared with 9 and 15 years. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria was highest in the summer, whereas the relative abundance of Bacteroidete at stand age of 9 years was significantly higher than those at other stand ages across different seasons. Xanthomonadaceae abundance increased with stand age, while Bacillus and Pirellulaceae abundances decreased in the spring and summer compared with autumn. Soil electric conductivity was a key edaphic factor for the rhizosphere bacterial community structure.
Seasonal fluctuation, rather than stand age, determines soil bacterial diversity in the rhizosphere of L. barbarum associated with soil degradation under long-term cultivation of L. barbarum.
KeywordsGrowth season Medicinal plant Rhizosphere bacteria Stand age
This study was supported by Major Innovation Projects for Building First class University in China’s Western Region (ZKZD2017004). The insightful comments from the anonymous reviewers are also deeply acknowledged.
- Bauld J, Brock TD (1973) Ecological studies of Chloroflexis, a gliding photosynthetic bacterium. Arch Microbiol 92:267–284Google Scholar
- Bensky D, Gamble A, Kaptchuk TJ (1993) Chinese herbal medicine: materia medica. Eastland Press, SeattleGoogle Scholar
- Egamberdieva D, Wirth S, Behrendt U et al (2017) Antimicrobial activity of medicinal plants correlates with the proportion of antagonistic endophytes. Front Microbiol 8:199Google Scholar
- Li J, Jiang XM, Yin HJ et al (2014) Root exudates and soil microbes in three Picea asperata plantations with different stand ages. Chin J Appl Ecol 25:325–332 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
- Na XF, Zheng GQ, Peng L et al (2016) Microbial biodiversity in rhizosphere of Lycium bararum L. relative to cultivation history. Acta Pedol Sin 53:241–252Google Scholar
- Pickett STA (1989) Space-for-time substitution as an alternative to long-term studies. In: Likens GE (ed) Long-term studies in ecology: approaches and alternatives. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 110–135Google Scholar
- Solaiman ZM, Anawar HM (2015) Rhizosphere microbes interactions in medicinal plants. In: Egamberdieva D, Shrivastava S, Varma A (eds) Plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and medicinal plants. Springer International Publishing, Switzerland, pp 19–41Google Scholar
- Todar K (2006) Todar’s online textbook of bacteriology. Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin–Madison, MadisonGoogle Scholar
- Wang J (2012) Biological characteristics of soil microorganisms in apple orchards with different ages. Ph.D. Thesis. Shaanxi Normal University (in Chinese)Google Scholar
- Wang W, Luo M, Pan C (2010) Microorganisms and its biological activity in rhizospheric soil around desert plants at the lower reaches of Tarim River, Xinjiang, China. J Desert Res 30:571–576 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
- Xi JQ, Yang ZH, Guo HJ et al (2015) Effects of Haloxylon ammodendron planting on soil physico-chenmical properties and soil microorganisms in sandy dune. Acta Prataculturae Sin 24:44–52 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
- Xiao G, Zhang Q, Li Y et al (2010) Impact of climatic warming on soil salinity and irrigation amount of Yellow River irrigation areas in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. Trans Chin Soc Agric Eng 26:7–13Google Scholar
- Xu C, Liu S, Xu R et al (2014) Investigation of production status in major wolfberry producing areas of China and some suggestions. Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi China J Chin Mater Med 39:1979–1984Google Scholar
- Ying Y, Ding W, Zhou Y et al (2012) Influence of Panax ginseng continuous cropping on metabolic function of soil microbial communities. Chin Herb Med 4:329–334Google Scholar
- Zhang YY, Sun H, Song XX et al (2011) Studied on soil microbial community structure about wild ginseng under forest. Res Soil Water Conserv 2:169–173 (in Chinese) Google Scholar
- Zou L, Yu Y, Sun TT et al (2014) Analysis of relationship between soil microbial biomass dynamics and soil physicochemical properties of Primary Korean Pine Forest in China. Pratucultural Sci 31:15–21 (in Chinese) Google Scholar