Skip to main content
  • Soils, Sec 1 • Soil Organic Matter Dynamics and Nutrient Cycling • Research Article
  • Published:

Occurrence and abundance of carbohydrates and amino compounds in sequentially extracted labile soil organic matter fractions

Abstract

Purpose

The study aimed to describe the carbohydrates and amino compounds content in soil, the light fraction (LF), the >53 μm particulate organic matter (POM), and the mobile humic acid (MHA) fraction and to find out whether the carbohydrates and amino compounds can be used to explain the origin of SOM fractions.

Materials and methods

Soil samples were collected from two agricultural fields managed under organic farming in southern Italy. The LF, the POM, and the MHA were sequentially extracted from each soil sample then characterized. Seven neutral sugars and 19 amino compounds (amino acids and amino sugars) were determined in each soil sample and its correspondent fractions.

Results and discussion

The MHA contained less carbohydrate than the LF or the POM but its carbohydrates, although dominated by arabinose, were relatively with larger microbial contribution as revealed by the mannose/xylose ratio. The amino compounds were generally less in the LF or the POM than in the MHA, while the fungal (aspartic and serine) and bacterial (alanine and glycine) amino acids were larger in the MHA than in the LF or the POM, underlining the microbial contribution to the MHA. Results from both sites indicated that total carbohydrates content decreased moving from the LF (younger fraction) to the MHA (older fraction), which seems to follow a decomposition continuum of organic matter in the soil-plant system.

Conclusions

The study showed that the MHA is a labile humified fraction of soil C due to its content of carbohydrates and concluded that the content of carbohydrates and amino compounds in the LF, the POM and the MHA can depict the nature of these fractions and their cycling pattern and response to land management.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Allard B (2006) A comparative study on the chemical composition of humic acids from forest soil, agricultural soil and lignite deposit bound lipid, carbohydrate and amino acid distributions. Geoderma 130:77–96

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baldock JA, Kay BD, Schnitzer MM (1987) Influence of cropping treatments on the monosaccharide content of the hydrolysates of a soil and its aggregate fractions. Can J Soil Sci 67:489–499

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Benbi DK, Brar K, Toor AS, Singh P, Singh H (2012) Soil carbon pools under poplar-based agroforestry, rice-wheat, and maize-wheat cropping systems in semi-arid India. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 92:107–118

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cao X, Olk DC, Chappell M, Cambardella CA, Miller LF, Mao J (2011) Solid-state NMR analysis of soil organic matter fractions from integrated physical–chemical extraction. Soil Sci Soc Am J 75:1374–1384

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • DiDonato N, Chen H, Waggoner D, Hatcher P (2016) Potential origin and formation for molecular components of humic acids in soils. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 178:210–222

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dorado J, Almendros G, González-Vila FJ (2016) Response of humic acid structure to soil tillage management as revealed by analytical pyrolysis. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis 117:56–63

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Friedel JK, Scheller E (2002) Composition of hydrolysable amino acids in soil organic matter and soil microbial biomass. Soil Biol Biochem 34:315–325

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fry SC (1991) Cell wall-bound proteins. In: Charlwood BV, Banthorpe DV (eds) Methods in Plant Biochemistry, vol. 5. Academic Press, pp 307–331

  • Gale WJ, Cambardella CA (2000) Carbon dynamics of surface residue- and root-derived organic matter under simulated no-till. Soil Sci Soc Am J 64:190–195

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Glaser B, Turrión MB, Solomon D, Ni A, Zech W (2000) Soil organic matter quantity and quality in mountain soils of the Alay Range, Kyrgyzia, affected by land use change. Biol Fertil Soils 31:407–413

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gregorich EG, Beare MH, McKim UF, Skjemstad JO (2006) Chemical and biological characteristics of physically uncomplexed organic matter. Soil Sci Soc Am J 70:975–985

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Haynes RJ (2005) Labile organic matter fractions as central components of the quality of agricultural soils: an overview. Adv Agron 85:221–268

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hu S, Coleman DC, Hendrix PF, Beare MH (1995) Biotic manipulation effects on soil carbohydrates and microbial biomass in a cultivated soil. Soil Biol Biochem 27:1127–1135

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ikeya K, Sleighter RL, Hatcher PG, Watanabe A (2015) Characterization of the chemical composition of soil humic acids using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 153:169–182

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kawahigashi M, Sumida H, Yamamoto K (2003) Seasonal changes in organic compounds in soil solutions obtained from volcanic ash soils under different land uses. Geoderma 113:381–396

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Liang C, Zhang X, Rubert KF, Balser TC (2007) Effect of plant materials on microbial transformation of amino sugars in three soil microcosms. Biol Fertil Soils 43:631–639

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mao J-D, Olk DC, Fang X, He Z, Schmidt-Rohr K (2008) Influence of animal manure application on the chemical structures of soil organic matter as investigated by advanced solid-state NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. Geoderma 146:353–362

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Marriott EE, Wander MM (2006) Total and labile soil organic matter in organic and conventional farming systems. Soil Sci Soc Am J 70:950–959

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Martens DA, Loeffelmann KL (2002) Improved accounting of carbohydrate carbon from plants and soils. Soil Biol Biochem 34:1393–1399

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Martens DA, Loeffelmann KL (2003) Soil amino acid composition quantified by acid hydrolysis and anion chromatography-pulsed amperometry. J Agric Food Chem 51:6521–6529

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Moers MEC, Baas M, de Leeuw JW, Boon JJ, Schenk PA (1990) Occurrence and origin of carbohydrates in peat samples from a red mangrove environment as reflected by abundances of neutral monosaccharides. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 54:2463–2472

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Murayama S (1981) Persistency and monosaccharide composition of polysaccharide of soil which received no plant material for a certain period under field conditions. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 27:463–475

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Oades JM (1984) Soil organic matter and structural stability: mechanisms and complications for management. Plant Soil 76:319–331

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Olk DC (2006) A chemical fractionation for structure-function relations of soil organic matter in nutrient cycling. Soil Sci Soc Am J 70:1013–1022

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Olk DC (2008) Improved analytical techniques for carbohydrates, amino compounds, and phenols: tools for understanding soil processes. Soil Sci Soc Am J 72:1672–1682

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Olk DC, Fortuna A, Honeycutt CW (2008) Using anion chromatography–pulsed amperometry to measure amino compounds in dairy manure-amended soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J 72:1711–1720

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Page AL, Miller RH, Keeny DR (1982) Methods of soil analysis, (part II, 2nd edn. American Society of Agronomy, Madison

    Google Scholar 

  • Palazzo AJ, Clapp C, Senesi N, Hayes MHB, Cary TJ, Mao J-D, Bashore TL (2008) Isolation and characterization of humic acids in Idaho slickspot soils. Soil Sci 173:375–368

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Puget P, Angers DA, Chenu C (1999) Nature of carbohydrates associated with water-stable aggregates of two cultivated soils. Soil Biol Biochem 31:55–63

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ratledge C, Wilkinson SG (1988) Fatty acids, related and derived lipids. In: Ratledge C, Wilkinson SG (eds) Microbial lipids, vol. 1. Academic Press, pp 23–53

  • Recio-Vazquez L, Almendros G, Knicker H, Carral P, Álvarezc A (2014) Multivariate statistical assessment of functional relationships between soil physical descriptors and structural features of soil organic matter in Mediterranean ecosystems. Geoderma 230–231:95–107

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sherrod LA, Dunn G, Peterson GA, Kolberg RL (2002) Inorganic carbon analysis by modified pressure—calcimeter method. Soil Sci Soc Am J 66:299–305

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Soil Survey Staff (2014) Keys to soil taxonomy, 12th edn. USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington

    Google Scholar 

  • Sposito G (2008) The chemistry of soils. Oxford University Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Stevenson FJ (1994) Humus chemistry: genesis, compositions, reactions, 2nd edn. John Wiley & Sons, New York

    Google Scholar 

  • Swift RS (1996) Organic matter characterization. In: Sparks DL (ed.) Methods of soil analysis, Part III. Chemical methods. SSSA Book Ser. 5., Madison, pp 1011–1069

  • Szajdak L, Jezierski A, Cabrera ML (2003) Impact of conventional and no-tillage management on soil amino acids, stable and transient radicals and properties of humic and fulvic acids. Org Geochem 34:693–700

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Vialykh EA, Ilarionov SA, Abdelrahman HM, Vialykh IA (2014) Changes in amino acids content of humic acids sequentially extracted from peat and sod podzolic soil. Can J Soil Sci 94:575–583

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Wagner GH, Mutatkar VK (1968) Amino components of soil organic matter formed during humification of 14C glucose. Soil Sci Soc Am Proc 32:683–684

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Xie H, Li J, Zhu P, Peng C, Wang J, He H, Zhang X (2014) Long-term manure amendments enhance neutral sugar accumulation in bulk soil and particulate organic matter in a Mollisol. Soil Biol Biochem 78:45–53

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang X, Amelung W (1996) Gas chromatographic determination of muramic acid, glucosamine, mannosamine, and galactosamine in soils. Soil Biol Biochem 28:1201–1206

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This work was carried out in the framework of the BIO.INNOVA project financed by the Ministero delle Politiche Agricole Alimentari e Forestali, Italy. The authors acknowledge the Apulia Region for using scientific instrumentation acquired with RELA-VALBIOR project. The authors are grateful to anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions on the manuscript draft.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hamada M. Abdelrahman.

Additional information

Responsible editor: Francisco Javier González-Vila

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Abdelrahman, H.M., Olk, D.C., Dinnes, D. et al. Occurrence and abundance of carbohydrates and amino compounds in sequentially extracted labile soil organic matter fractions. J Soils Sediments 16, 2375–2384 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-016-1437-y

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-016-1437-y

Keywords

  • Light fraction
  • Mobile humic acid
  • Organic farming
  • Particulate organic matter
  • SOM sequential extraction