Advertisement

Journal of Soils and Sediments

, Volume 16, Issue 4, pp 1253–1266 | Cite as

Impact of natural and man-made factors on migration of heavy metals in the Ardon River basin (North Ossetia)

  • Vadim V. Ermakov
  • Elena M. KorobovaEmail author
  • Alexander P. Degtyarev
  • Sergey F. Tyutikov
  • Elena A. Karpova
  • Nina S. Petrunina
Soil Pollution and Remediation

Abstract

Purpose

The main goal of the study was to evaluate biogeochemical effects of particular factors changing the structure of landscapes due to enhanced mass migration and erosion of the outcropping rocks by studying transformation of chemical composition of the draining waters and flood plain soils; chemical composition of the solid and liquid phases of the Ardon River waters; and by assessing ecological consequences and risk of contamination of the area by heavy metals.

Materials and methods

Water, soil, and biota species (plants, algae, and amphibian) were sampled at the plots located up- and downstream the mining and industrial areas of North Ossetia (the Ardon River basin) before and after the mudflow that took place in 2002. The air-dried samples were decomposed in a mixture of mineral acids. Heavy metals were determined by means of AAS with the help of AAS-80 (Hitachi) or AAS-2A (KORTEC) using standard reference materials of hair (CRM 397), plant mixture (SBMT-02), and soil (SRM 2709). Hydrochemical and biochemical analyses were performed with the help of the known methods (Kraynov and Shvets 1992; Burtis et al. 2006).

Results and discussion

The study showed that activity of the Misur Mining Combine and its Ardon-Khost tailings caused a significant local increase of Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn content in soils, water, and biotic components as compared to the background values. The mudflow of 2002 changed the structure of landscapes and was followed by a considerable transformation of chemical composition of the downstream river waters and floodplain soils, and by invasion of particular hydrophyte species. Algae and amphibian adapted to the changed conditions and indicated both natural and anthropogenic transformation of the environment. A distinct relation between the particle size of the suspended matter in the Ardon River waters and water salinity was discovered.

Conclusions

Therefore, the Unal basin presents a vivid example of modern natural and anthropogenic evolution of Pb-Zn biogeochemical province under conditions of the extreme and dynamic geochemical environment leading to enhanced risks of ecological damage. Algae species demonstrated high adaptive and indicative capacity in case of both the fast natural and man-made impact.

Keywords

Biogeochemical indicators Biogeochemical provinces Ecological risks Heavy metals Technogenic contamination 

References

  1. Adamo P, Dudka S, Wilson MJ, McHardy WJ (1996) Chemical and mineralogical forms of Cu and Ni in contaminated soils from the Sudbury mining and smelting region, Canada. Environ Pollut 91(1):11–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Audry S, Grosbois C, Bril H, Sch€afer J, Kierczak J, Blanc G (2010) Post-depositional redistribuion of trace metals in reservoir sediments of mining/smelting-impacted watershed (the Lot River, SW France). Appl Geochem 25:778–794CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Avila PF, Ferreira da Silva E, Salgueiro AR, Farinha JA (2008) Geochemistry and mineralogy of mill tailings impoundments from the Panasqueira Mine (Portugal): implications for the surrounding environment. Mine Water Environ 27:210–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Borisov MV, Bychkov DA, Shvarov YV (2006) Geochemical structure of base-metal filling veins and parameters of hydrothermal ore formation. Geochem Int 44(11):1129–1147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Burtis C, Ashwood E, Bruns D (2006) Tietz textbook of clinical chemistry and molecular diagnostics, 4th edn. Elsevier Saunders, St. LouisGoogle Scholar
  6. Cabala J, Rahmonov O, Jablonska M, Teper E (2011) Soil algal colonization and its ecological role in an environment polluted by past Zn–Pb mining and smelting activity. Water Air Soil Pollut 215:339–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Degtyarev AP (1999) Transformation of tailings in the tailing dump of the Mizur Ore Mining and Processing Facility. In: Proceedings of 2nd Russian workshop on geochemical ecology and biogeochemical zoning of the biosphere Moscow, pp 41–42Google Scholar
  8. Degtyarev AP, Ermakov V (1998) Ecological and geochemical evaluation of the Ardon river basin (Northern Ossetia). Geochem Int 1:88–94Google Scholar
  9. Ermakov VV (1999) Geochemical ecology as a consequence of system studies of the biosphere. In: Problems of biogeochemistry and geochemical ecology. Proceedings of the Biogeochemical Laboratory. Nauka, Moscow 23:152–183Google Scholar
  10. Ermakov VV (2000) Biogeochemical aspects of the study and environmental assessment taxons of the biosphere, Geochemical ecology and biogeochemical study of taxons of the biosphere. Publishing House of SB RAS, Novosibirsk, pp 5–30Google Scholar
  11. Ermakov V, Tyutikov S (2008) Geochemical ecology of animals. Nauka, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  12. Ermakov VV, Degtyarev A, Karpova E (1996) Polymetallic biogeochemical anomalies in the Ardon river basin. In: Mengen und Spurenelemente (ed) Schubert, Leipzig 16:415–425Google Scholar
  13. Evans SG, Tutubalina OV, Drobyshev VN, Chernomorets SS, McDougall S, Petrakov DA, Hungr O (2009) Catastrophic detachment and high-velocity long-runout flow of Kolka Glacier, Caucasus Mountains, Russia in 2002. Geomorphology 105:314–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Frau F, Ardau C, Fanfari L (2009) Environmental geochemistry and mineralogy of lead at the old mine area of Caccu Locci (South-East Sardinia, Italy). J Geochem Explor 100:105–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. González-Corrochano B, Esbrí JM, Alonso-Azcárate J, Martínez-Coronado A, Jurado V, Higueras P (2014) Environmental geochemistry of a highly polluted area: the La Union Pb–Zn mine (Castilla-La Mancha region, Spain). J Geochem Explor 144(Part B):345–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kabata-Pendias A, Muckherjee AB (2007) Trace elements from soil to human. Springer, BerlinCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Karpova E, Ermakov V, Degtyarev A, Krechetova E (2007a) Transformation of trace elements forms in soddy alluvial soils of polymetal mining area of the North Ossetia. In: Proceedings of 7th Eco-Conference (Novi Sad.) 1:129–135Google Scholar
  18. Karpova EA, Krechetova EV, Degtyarev AP (2007b) Parameters of heavy metal migration in soils of biogeochemical anomalies of the Northern Ossetia. In: Modern problems of soil contamination. Moscow State University 1:106–110Google Scholar
  19. Kraynov SR, Shvets VM (1992) Hydrogeochemistry. Nedra, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  20. Kuznetsov VA, Shimko GA (1990) Stepwise method of extracts in geochemical studies Navuka i tehnika, MinskGoogle Scholar
  21. Lacatusu R, Citu G, Aston J, Lungu M, Lacatusu AR (2009) Heavy metals soil pollution state in relation to potential future mining activities in the Rosia Montana Area. Carpathian J Earth Environ Sci 4(2):39–50Google Scholar
  22. Matveev AA, Pryanichnikova EV, Shestakova TV, Semenov Yu N (2004) Geochemical assessment of the impact of Unal tailing of the Sadons lead-zinc plant (North Ossetia-Alania) on the environment. In: Proceedings of the section of Geosciences of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences (Moscow). 12:136–147Google Scholar
  23. Methods for investigation of biological cycle in various natural zones (1978) Mysl, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  24. Miller JR (1997) The role of fluvial geomorphic processes in the dispersal of heavy metals from mine sites. J Geochem Explor 58(2):101–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Morozova IA (1992) Landscape geochemistry and mineral exploration. IMGRE, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  26. Motuzova GV (1988) Principles and methods of soil chemical monitoring. MGU, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  27. Motuzova GV, Karpova EA (2013) Chemical pollution of the biosphere and its ecological consequences. MGU, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  28. Mukherjee AB (2001) In: Prasad MNV (ed) Behavior of heavy metals and their remediation in metalloferous soils//metals in the Environment. Marcel Dekker Inc, New York, pp 433–471Google Scholar
  29. Mukherjee AB, Vetterlein D, Kuehn T, Aiser K, Jahn R (2010) Minerals controlling arsenic distribution in floodplain soils. Eur J Soil Sci 61:588–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Petrunina NS, Ermakov VV, Tyutikov SF, Karpova EA, Levkina LM, Gololobova MA (2006) Biogeochemical identification of natural and technogenic polymetallic anomalies in the Ardon river basin (the Northern Ossetia). Probl Biogeochem Geochem Ecol 1:90–97Google Scholar
  31. World reference base for soil resources (WRB) (2006) First update 2007. http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/templates/nr/images/resources/pdf_documents/wrb2007_red.pdf
  32. Zakharov EE (1930) Mineralogy of Sadon ore lode. In: Proceedings of the Institute of Applied Mineralogy (Moscow) 46:54–154Google Scholar
  33. Zyrin NG, Malakhov SG (1981) Guidelines for the field and laboratory studies of soil and plants in monitoring the environmental metals’ pollution Gidrometeoizdat, MoscowGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vadim V. Ermakov
    • 1
  • Elena M. Korobova
    • 1
    Email author
  • Alexander P. Degtyarev
    • 1
  • Sergey F. Tyutikov
    • 1
  • Elena A. Karpova
    • 2
  • Nina S. Petrunina
    • 1
  1. 1.V.I. Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical ChemistryMoscowRussia
  2. 2.M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State UniversityMoskvaRussia

Personalised recommendations