A simplified extraction schema to for the analytical characterization of apple orchard soils
- 225 Downloads
Standardized procedures for agricultural soil analysis use different extractant solutions, to determine one or just a few elements, which needs a lot of time and manpower. Within this work, it was tried to substitute traditional methods by the use of multi-element determination techniques, like inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) applied to a few solutions.
Material and methods
ICP-OES and ICP-MS have been applied to a sequence of extracts obtained with 0.16 M acetic acid and 0.1 M oxalate buffer pH 3, which are more suitable for the plasma than traditional salt extractant solutions. Dilute acetic acid should characterize exchangeables plus carbonates, and oxalate buffer the pedogenic oxides. Aqua regia extractions in glass have been replaced by pressure digestion with KClO3 in dilute nitric acid, which yields results equivalent to aqua regia, and additionally permits the determination of total sulfur, as well as acid-leachable boron and silicon. Total digestion was done in PTFE beakers by fuming with HNO3/HClO4, subsequently with HF, and final uptake in 1 + 1 HCl.
Results and discussion
The method was applied to 44 soils from apple orchards of different soil types and climatic zones. P and K obtained from standard acetate-lactate extract as well as B obtained from the Baron extract correlated with the results from the acetic acid extract better than 0.9. Just Mg from the CaCl2 extract (Schachtschabel) was independent from all other Mg fractions. The results of the total digests could be verified by XRF analysis of the solid, Ti recovery was the most critical item. The results for Ca, Cu, Mg, Mn, Sr, Pb, and Zn obtained from KClO3 digest and from totals, were strongly correlated. Factor analysis showed that the fraction mobilized by dilute acetic acid contained Ca-Mg-carbonates as well as Al-Ba-Na in the first factor, K-P-S in a second, whereas Mn-La-Li formed a group of its own. The pedogenic oxides, obtained from Al-Fe-Mn-Ti released in oxalate, carry most of the cationic trace elements, whereas the anions P-S-B-Si and the essentials Cu-Mo form different groups. Among the main elements, the quasi-total data were much less intercorrelated than the totals. The rare earth elements formed a strongly intercorrelated group as well after total digestion as in the oxalate leach.
The proposed method permits to obtain information about common cations including trace elements, and the nonmetals phosphorus, silicon, sulfur, boron, and iodine simultaneously, which could be a gate to find new relations among them. The two-step procedure permits to predict availabilities in shorter and longer periods of time. Data from the extract in dilute acetic acid for K, P, and B can substitute traditional methods of soil analysis.
KeywordsHeavy metals Mobile fractions Nonmetals Rare earth elements Soil nutrients
- (2006) Richtlinien für die fachgerechte Düngung (engl: guidelines for proper fertilization). BMLFuW, 6. Auflage 2006, Vienna, AustriaGoogle Scholar
- Psenner R, Pucsko R, Sager M (1984) Die Fraktionierung organischer und anorganischer Phosphorverbindungen von Sedimenten - Versuch einer Definition ökologisch wichtiger Fraktionen. Arch Hydrobiol Suppl 70:111–155Google Scholar
- Pueyo M, Rauret G, Bacon JR, Gomez A, Muntau H, Quevauviller P, López-Sánchez JF (2001) A new organic-rich soil reference material certified for ist EDTA- and aceitc acid- extractable contents of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, following collaboratively tested and harmonised procedures. J Environ Monit 3:238–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Quevauviller P, Rauret G, Rubio R, López-Sánchez JF, Ure A, Bacon J, Muntau H (1997) Certified reference materials for the quality control of EDTA- and acetic acid – extractable contents of trace elements in sewage sludge amended soils (CRMs 483 and 484). Fres J Anal Chem 357:611–618CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rauret G, López-Sánchez JF, Sahuquillo A, Barahona E, Lachica M, Ure A, Davidson CM, Gomez A, Lück D, Bacon J, Yli-Halla M, Muntau H, Quevauviller P (2000) Application of a modified BCR sequential extraction (three-step) procedure for the determination of extractable trace metal contents in a sewage sludge amended soil reference material (CRM 483), complemented by a three-year stability study of acetic acid and EDTA extractable metal content. J Environ Monit 2:228–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sager M (1991) Adsorption und Desorption von Cr, Cu, Pb und Zn bei Böden, Bodentonen und Sedimenten, Arbeitsgemeinschaft Landwirtschaftlicher Versuchsanstalten, 23.5. 1991, InnsbruckGoogle Scholar
- Sager M (1991) Effect of the geochemical matrix on the adsorption/desorption- behaviour of Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn in sediments, soils, and clays, deutschsprachige Limnologentagung 1991, 1.10. 1991, MondseeGoogle Scholar
- Sager M (1991) Zur Adsorption und Desorption von Cr, Cu, Pb, Tl und Zn- Ionen an Donausedimenten, Beitrag zur 29. Arbeitstagung der Internationalen Arbeitsgemeinschaft Donauforschung, 16.-22.9.1991, KiewGoogle Scholar
- Sager M (1992) Chemical speciation and environmental mobility of heavy metals in sediments and soils. In: Stoeppler M (ed) Hazardous metals in the environment. Elsevier Science Publishers, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
- Sager M (2002) Vertical mobility of Selenium, Arsenic and Sulfur in Model Soil Columns. Die Bodenkultur 53(2):83–103Google Scholar
- Sager M (2004) Effects of a fertilization pulse on migration of nutrient and trace elements in chernozem soil columns within a vegetation period. Die Bodenkultur 55(4):165–182Google Scholar
- Sager M (2005) Multi- Elementbestimmung in Fleisch, Leber und Nieren. Ernährung/ Nutrition 29(4):151–156Google Scholar
- Sager M (2011) Microwave- assisted digestion of organic materials with KClO3/HNO3 for the analysis of trace metals and non-metals. Anal Chem Indian J 10(2):101–108Google Scholar
- Sager M, Belocky R, Pucsko R (1990) Zur Ermittlung der Bindungsformen von Haupt- und Spurenelementen in Sedimenten durch sequentielle Löseverfahren. Acta Hydrochim Hydrobiol 18:123–139Google Scholar
- Schüller H (1969) Die CAL-Methode, eine neue Methode zur Bestimmung des pflanzenverfügbaren Phosphates in Böden. Zeitschrift für Pflanzenern. Düngung Bdk 123(1):48–63Google Scholar
- Schweitzer K, Pagel H (2001) Einfluss niedriger pH-Werte auf den Gehalt amorpher Al- und Fe- Oxide, die P-Sorption und P- Nachlieferung in einem Sandboden. Mitt der Deutschen Bodenkundl Ges 96(1):283Google Scholar
- Ure A, Quevauviller P, Muntau H, Griepink B (1993) Speciation of heavy metals in soils and sediments. An account of the improvement and harmonization of extraction techniques undertaken under the auspices of the BCR of the Commission ot the European Communities. Int J Environ Anal Chem 51:135–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar