Advertisement

Journal of Soils and Sediments

, Volume 16, Issue 4, pp 1225–1237 | Cite as

Geochemical transformation of soil cover in copper–molybdenum mining areas (Erdenet, Mongolia)

  • Ivan V. TimofeevEmail author
  • Natalia E. Kosheleva
  • Nikolay S. Kasimov
  • Petr D. Gunin
  • Enkh-Amgalan Sandag
Soil Pollution and Remediation

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the present study is to evaluate geochemical transformation of soil cover in the territory of Erdenet (Mongolia) and to assess the environmental risk associated with soil cover contamination. The objectives of the present study included: (1) the determination of heavy metals (HMs) and metalloids contents in surface horizons of background and urban soils and the assessment of geochemical transformation of the city’s soil cover; (2) the identification of elements’ associations and patterns of their spatial distribution in the soil cover of the city; (3) the assessment of environmental hazard, related to contamination of soils with complexes of HMs and metalloids.

Materials and methods

Soil–geochemical survey was conducted by the authors in the summer periods of 2010 and 2011. In total, 225 samples, including 32 backgrounds, were collected. Bulk contents of HMs and metalloids in soil samples were analyzed by mass-spectral method with inductively coupled plasma at All-Russian Research Institute of Mineral Raw Materials (Moscow) using Elan-6100 and Optima-4300 devices (Perkin Elmer, USA).

Results and discussion

Mo, Cu, and Se appeared to be the priority pollutants nearly in all land-use zones. The maximum accumulation of Mo, Cu, Se, As, Sb, and W is restricted to the industrial area where total pollution index of soils (Zc) equals 74.8. Three technogenic associations of elements, derived mainly from petrochemical features of Erdenet ore field and characterized by similar spatial distribution within the city, are identified. Environmental assessment of surface soil horizon geochemistry in Erdenet showed that 1/5 of its area has dangerous and extremely dangerous levels of soil pollution.

Conclusions

Experience of the environmental–geochemical assessment of soil cover in the impact zone of mining enterprises could be useful for other fields of the non-ferrous metals with high lithological–geochemical heterogeneity of the territory. It suggests the need of accounting for the geological diversity and specific features of metallogeny of an area. Geochemical indices local enrichment factor/local depletion factor should be calculated against the individual background values for each soil-forming rock. Such approach allows more accurate assessment of the degree of technogenic geochemical transformation of soils and the environmental hazard of pollution.

Keywords

Environmental hazards Heavy metals Mining landscapes Technogenic anomalies Type of land use Urban soils 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was carried out in the framework of the research supported by Russian Scientific Foundation (project № 14-27-00083). The authors would like to thank the translator Elena N. Aseeva, and the reviewers for their valuable comments, which highly improved the manuscript.

References

  1. Arinushkina EM (1992) Handbook for chemical analysis of soils. Chimiya, Moscow, 425 pp, (in Russian)Google Scholar
  2. Avessalomova IA, Malkhazova SM, Chalov RS, Shniparkov AL et al (2004) In: Kasimov NS (ed) Geography, society and environment. Volume IV. Natural–anthropogenic processes and environmental risk, Gordets, 616 pp (in Russian)Google Scholar
  3. Bech J, Pochenrieder C, Lgugany M, Barcelo J, Tume P, Tobias FJ, Barranzuela JL, Vasquez ER (1997) Arsenic and heavy metal contamination of soil and vegetation around a copper mine in Northern Peru. Sci Total Environ 203:83–91CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Berzina AP, Sotnikov VI (2007) Character of formation of the Erdenet-Ovoo porphyry Cu-Mo magmatic center (northern Mongolia) in the zone of influence of a Permo-Triassic plume. Russ Geol Geophys 48:141–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Byambaa Ch (2007) Evaluation of mining activity impact on the environment within the Erdenetii-Ovoo mineral deposit. Dissertation, Moscow 145 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  6. Candeis C, Ferreira Da Silva E, Salgueiro AR, Pereira HG, Reis AP, Patinha C, Matos JX, Avila PH (2011) Assessment of soil contamination by potentially toxic elements in the Aljustrel mining area in order to implement soil reclamation strategies. Land Degrad Dev 22:564–585Google Scholar
  7. Csavina J, Field J, Taylor MP, Gao S, Landazuri A, Betterton EA, Saez AE (2012) A review on the importance of metals and metalloids in atmospheric dust and aerosol from mining operations. Sci Total Environ 433:58–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dragović R, Gajić B, Dragović S, Đorđević M, Đorđević M, Mihailović N, Onjia A (2014) Assessment of the impact of geographical factors on the spatial distribution of heavy metals in soils around the steel production facility in Smederevo (Serbia). J Clean Prod 84:550–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Durov NM, Korovushkin VV, Podgorodetskii GS, Yusfin YS (2009) Wind distribution of pollutants from metallurgical enterprises. Steel Transl 39(3):217–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Elpat’evskyi PV (1993) Geochemistry of migration fluxes in natural and natural–technogenic geosystems. Nauka, Moscow 253 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  11. Garcia-Sanchez A, Alonso-Rojo P, Santos-Frances F (2010) Distribution and mobility of arsenic in soils of a mining area (Western Spain). Sci Total Environ 408:4194–4201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gavrilova SP, Maksimyuk IYe, Orolmaa D (2010) The Erdenet molybdenum–copper porphyry deposit (Mongolia). IMGRE, Moscow 270 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  13. Gedgafova F, Uligova TS (2007) Heavy metals in natural and technogenic ecosystems of the Central Caucasus. Russ J Ecol 38:295–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gomez-Alvares A, Meza-Figueroa D, Vilalva-Atondo AI, Valenzuela-Garcia JL, Remirez-Hernandez J, Almendariz-Tapia J (2009) Estimation of potential pollution from mine tailings in San Pedro River (1993-2005), Mexico–US border. Environ Geol 57:1469–1479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Greenwood NN, Ernsho A (1997) Chemistry of the elements. Second edition. Butterworth-Heinemann. 1359 ppGoogle Scholar
  16. Hudson-Edwards KA, Jamieson HE, Lottermoser BG (2011) Mine wastes: past, present, future. Elements 7:375–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kabata-Pendias A (2011) Trace elements in soils and plants, 4th edn. CRC Press, Boca Raton, 548 ppGoogle Scholar
  18. Kasimov NS, Kosheleva NE, Sorokina OI, Bazha SN, Gunin PD, Enkh-Amgalan S (2011) Ecological–geochemical state of soils in Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia). Eurasian Soil Sci 44(7):709–721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ketris MP, Yudovich YE (2009) Estimation of Clarkes for carbonaceous biolithes: world averages for trace element contents in black shales and coals. Int J Coal Geol 78:135–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kominek E et al (1969) The report of Czechslovakian geological expedition in MPR on ore prospecting in the area of the Erdenetituin-Obo molybdenum–copper deposit. Report. GGF-MNR (in Russian)Google Scholar
  21. Koz B, Cevik U, Akbulut S (2012) Heavy metal analysis around Murgul (Artvin) copper mining area of Turkey using moss and soil. Ecol Indic 20:17–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Li Z, Ma Z, Jan van der Kuijp T, Yuan Z, Huang L (2014) A review of soil heavy metal pollution from mines in China: pollution and health risk assessment. Sci Total Environ 468–469:843–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lizarraga-Mendiola L, Gonzalez-Sandoval MR, Duran-Dominguez MC, Marquez-Herrera C (2009) Geochemical behavior of heavy metals in Zn-Pb-Cu mining area in the State of Mexico (Central Mexico). Environ Monit Assess 155:355–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Loredo J, Ordonez A, Alvarez R (2006) Environmental impact of toxic metals and metalloids from the Munon Cimero mercury-mining area (Asturias, Spain). J Hazard Mater A136:455–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Milu V, Lerroy JL, Peiffert C (2002) Water contamination downstream from a copper mine in the Apuseni Montains, Romania. Environ Geol 42:773–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Naboichenko SS, Tsogtkhangai D, Dorzhpurev M (1982) Hydrometallurgical activation of chalkozine concentrate. Izvestiya Vuzov. Non-ferrous metallurgy, №5:8-21 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  27. Osipova NA, Zhornyak LV, Yazikov EG, Syskina AA (2014) Ecological dangers of chemical contamination of urban areas soils: Case study of Tomsk. 15th International Scientific Conference on Chemistry and Chemical Engineering in 21st Century dedicated to L.P. Krulyov. 10:508–512. doi: 10.1016/j.proche.2014.10.086
  28. Owor M, Hartig T, Muwanga A, Zachmann D, Pohl W (2007) Impact of tailings from the Kilembe copper mining district on Lake George, Uganda. Environ Geol 51:1065–1075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Perel’man AI, Kasimov NS (1999) Landscape geochemistry. Astreya-2000, Moscow 768:(in Russian)Google Scholar
  30. Pestryak IV, Erdenetuya O (2012) The improvement of water supply system in a ore processing plant. Mining Informational and Analytical Newsletter №5:142-149 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  31. Pruvot C, Douay F, Hervé F, Waterlot C (2006) Heavy metals in soil, crops and grass as a source of human exposure in the former mining areas. J Soils Sediments 6(4):215–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rastmanech F, Moore F, Kharrati Kopaei M, Keshavarzi B, Behrouz M (2011) Heavy metal enrichment of soil in Sarcheshmeh copper complex, Kerman, Iran. Environ Earth Sci 62:329–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rey J, Martinez J, Hidalgo MC, Rojas D (2013) Heavy metal pollution in the Quaternery Garza basin: a multidisciplinary study of the environmental risks posed by mining (Linares, southern Spain). Catena 110:234–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Saet YuE., Revich BA, Yanin YeP et al (1990) Environmental geochemistry. Nedra, Moscow:335 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  35. Schaidera LA, Senna DB, Estesa ER, Brabanderb DJ, Shinea JP (2014) Sources and fates of heavy metals in a mining-impacted stream: temporal variability and the role of iron oxides. Sci Total Environ 490:456–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Serbula SM, Miljkovic DD, Kovacevic RM, Ilic AA (2012) Assessment of airborne heavy metals pollution using plant parts and topsoil. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 76:209–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tsogtkhangai D, Mamyachenkov SV, Anisimova OS, Naboichenko SS (2011) Optimization of the process of copper leaching by nitric acid using the experimental design. Nauchno-technicheskyi vesnik Povolzh’ya №1:48–52 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  38. Vodyanitskyi YN (2012) Standards for the contents of heavy metals and metalloids in soils. Eurasian Soil Sci 45(3):321–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Vodyanitskyi YN (2014) Natural and technogenic compounds of heavy metals in soils. Eurasian Soil Sci 47(4):255–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Vostokova YeA, Gunin PD (eds) (2005) Ecosystems of the Selenga basin. Nauka, Moscow:359 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  41. Watanabe Y, Stein HJ (2000) Re-Os ages for the Erdenet and Tsagaan Suvarga porphyry Cu-Mo deposits, Mongolia, and tectonic implications. Econ Geol 95:1527–1542Google Scholar
  42. Waul Ya et al (1968) The report on geological survey 1:100000 in the area of Erdenetuin-Obo, carried out by czecholsovakian expedition. Report. GGF-MNR (in Russian)Google Scholar
  43. Yarmolyuk VV, Kovalenko VI (2003) Deep geodynamics and mantle plumes: their role in the formation of the Central Asian fold belt. Petrology 11(6):504–532Google Scholar
  44. Хөрсний чанар (2008) Хөрс бохирдуулагч бодис, элементүүдийн зөвшеөрөгдөх дээд хэмжээ. Монгол Улсын стандарт – Стандартчилал, Хэмжилзүйн Үндэсний Төв, Ulaanbaatar:8 (in Mongolian)Google Scholar

Internet-resources

  1. www.erdenetmc.mn–the official site of Erdenet mining Corporation
  2. www.worldweather.wmo.int–World Meteorological Organization

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ivan V. Timofeev
    • 1
    Email author
  • Natalia E. Kosheleva
    • 1
  • Nikolay S. Kasimov
    • 1
  • Petr D. Gunin
    • 2
  • Enkh-Amgalan Sandag
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Landscape Geochemistry and Soil Geography, Faculty of GeographyMoscow State UniversityMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Laboratory for Ecology of Arid Territories, A.N. Severtsov’s Institute for Ecology and EvolutionRussian Academy of SciencesMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Institute of GeographyMongolian Academy of SciencesUlaanbaatarMongolia

Personalised recommendations