Advertisement

Journal of Soils and Sediments

, Volume 16, Issue 4, pp 1176–1182 | Cite as

Heavy metal distribution and electrical conductivity measurements in biosolid pellets

  • Manuel M. JordánEmail author
  • Beatriz Rincón-Mora
  • María Belén Almendro-Candel
SOIL POLLUTION AND REMEDIATION

Abstract

Purpose

Contamination of soils by potentially toxic elements (e.g. Cd, Ni, Cr, Pb) from amendments of biosolids is subject to strict controls within the European Union. Today, the use of biosolids to improve the nutrient content in a soil is a common practice. The present research was conducted to determine electrical conductivity in biosolid pellets (dry wastes) using an innovative methodology. On the other hand, the present study was designed to examine the partition of selected heavy metals in biosolid pellets and also to relate the distribution patterns of these metals.

Materials and methods

In this context, heavy metal concentrations were studied in biosolid pellets under different pressures. Electrical conductivity measurements were taken in biosolid pellets under pressures on the order of 50 to 150 MPa and with currents of 10−15 A. Measurements of electrical conductivity and heavy metal content for different areas (H1, H2, and H3) were taken. Total content of metals was determined following microwave digestion and analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS). Triplicate portions were weighed in polycarbonate centrifuge tubes and sequentially extracted.

Results and discussion

The distribution of chemical forms of Cd, Ni, Cr, and Pb in the biosolids was studied using a sequential extraction procedure that fractionates the metal into soluble-exchangeable, specifically sorbed-carbonate-bound, oxidizable, reducible, and residual forms. The residual, reducible, and carbonate-sorbed forms were dominant. Higher Cr and Ni content were detected in pellets made with biosolids from the H3 horizon. The highest Cd and Ni values were detected in the H2 horizon.

Conclusions

The trends of the conductivity curves were similar for the sludge from the isolation surface horizon (H1) and for the horizon in the mesophilous area (H2). In the case of the horizon in the thermophilous area (H3), the electrical conductivity showed extremely high values. This behaviour was similar in the case of the Cr and Ni content. However, in the case of Cd and Pb, the highest values were detected in the H2 horizon. This experiment could be useful for establishing a general rule for taking measurements of electrical conductivity and heavy metals in biosolid pellets and other types of dry wastes.

Keywords

Biosolids Electrical conductivity Heavy metals Pellets Sequential extraction 

References

  1. Al-Solaimi SG (1987) Effect of sewage sludge-borne cadmium on crop production and on soil and plant composition. Diss Abstr Int 47(9):3583BGoogle Scholar
  2. Aaron AJ (2013) Analysis of worldwide regulatory guidance values for the most commonly regulated elemental surface soil contamination. J Environ Manag 118:72–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Abedin J, Beckett P, Spiers G (2012) An evaluation of extractants for assessment of metal phytoavailability to guide reclamation practices in acidic soilscapes in northern regions. Can J Soil Sci 92:253–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Baeyens W, Monteny F, Leermakers M, Bouillon S (2003) Evaluation of sequential extraction on dry and wet sediments. Anal Bioanal Chem 376:890–901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cabral AR, Lefebvre G (1998) Use of sequential extraction in the study of heavy metal retention by silty soils. Water Air Soil Pollut 102:329–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Camilla S, Cucurull D, Vignolo J, Pintanel R (2005a) Determinación de la conductividad eléctrica en lodos, II Simposio Interamericano de Lodos y Biosólidos Viña del Mar, Chile. Octubre de 2005Google Scholar
  7. Camilla S, Vignolo J, Pintanel R, Cucurull D (2005b) Determinación de la compactación de los lodos según tamaño de grano, II Simposio Interamericano de Lodos y Biosólidos, Viña Mar, Chile. Octubre de 2005Google Scholar
  8. Camilla S, Gonzalez I, Cucurull D, Jordan MM (2006) Caracterización de aguas extraídas a presiones sobre 100 (MPa) a lodos secos que serán utilizados como enmienda orgánica” XXX Congreso de la Asociación Interamericana de Ingeniería Sanitaria y Ambiental. Punta del Este, Uruguay. Noviembre de 2006Google Scholar
  9. Camilla S, Jordán MM (2009) Electrical conductivity measurements in sewage sludge pellets: innovative techniques for environmental management. J Hazard Mater 168:1260–1263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Camobreco VJ, Richards BK, Steenhuis TS, Peverly JH, McBride MB (1996) Movement of heavy metals through undisturbed and homogenized soil columns. Soil Sci 161(11):740–750CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Galán E, Gozález I, Romero A, Aparicio P (2014) A methodological approach to estimate the geogenic contribution in soils potentially polluted by trace elements. Application to a case study. J Soils Sediments 14:810–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gebhardt H, Grun R, Push F (1988) The accumulation of heavy metals in soils and crops through sewage sludge application. Z Pflanzenernahr Bodenkde 151:307–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gleyzes C, Tellier SM, Astruc M (2002) Fractionation studies of trace elements in contaminated soils and sediments: a review of sequential extraction procedure. Trend Anal Chem 21:451–467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. IUSS Working Group WRB (2014) World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2014. International soil classification system for naming soils and creating legends for soil maps. World Soil Resources Reports No. 106. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  15. Jordán MM, Mateu J, Juan P, Navarro-Pedreño J, García Sánchez E (2004) Spatial dynamics of soil salinity under arid and semiarid conditions: geological and environmental implications. Environ Geol 45(4):448–456CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Jordán MM, Almendro-Candel MB, Romero M, Rincón JM (2005) Application of sewage sludge in the manufacturing of ceramic tile bodies. Appl Clay Sci 30(3–4):219–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Krishnamurti GSR, Huang PM, Van Rees KCL, Korak LM, Rostead PW (1994) Microwave digestion technique for the determination of total cadmium in soils. Commun Soil Sci Plan 25:615–625CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Legret M, Divet L, Juste C (1988) Migration et spéciation des métaux lourds dans un sol soumis à des épandages de boues de station d’épuration à trés forte charge en Cd et Ni. Water Res 22(8):953–959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. McGrath SP (1987) Long-term studies of metal transfers following application of biosolids. In: Coughtrey PJ, Martin MH, Unsworth MH (eds) Pollutant, transport and fate in ecosystems. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp 301–317Google Scholar
  20. McLaren RG, Clucas LM, Taylor MD, Hendry T (2004) Leaching of macronutrients and metals from undisturbed soils treated with metal-spiked sewage sludge. 2. Leaching of metals. Aust J Soil Res 42(4):459–471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Montemurro F, Convertini G, Ferri D, Maiorana M (2005) MSW compost application on tomato crops in Mediterranean conditions: effects on agronomic performance and nitrogen utilization. Compost Sci Util 13(4):234–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Moral R, Gilkes R, Jordán MM (2005) Distribution of heavy metals in calcareous and non-calcareous soils in Spain. Water Air Soil Pollut 162:127–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Moreno-Penaranda R, Lloret F, Alcañiz JM (2004) Effects of sewage sludge on plant community composition on restored limestone quarries. Restor Ecol 12(2):290–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Narwal RP, Singh BR, Salbu B (1999) Association of cadmium, zinc, copper, and nickel with components in naturally heavy metal-rich soils studied by parallel and sequential extractions. Commun Soil Sci Plan 30:1209–1230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Navarro Pedreño J, Gómez I, Moral R, Palacios G, Mataix J (1997) Heavy metals and plant nutrition and development. Recent Res Dev Phytochem 1:173–179Google Scholar
  26. Navarro-Pedreño J, Almendro-Candel MB, Jordán-Vidal MM, Mataix-Solera J, García-Sánchez E (2003) Mobility of cadmium, chromium, and nickel through the profile of a calcisol treated with sewage sludge in the southeast of Spain. Environ Geol 44:545–553CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Navarro-Pedreño J, Almendro-Candel MB, Jordán-Vidal MM, Mataix-Solera J, García-Sánchez E (2004) Risk areas in the application of sewage sludge on degraded soils in province of Alicante (Spain). In Geo-Environment, 293–302. Ed. WIT-PressGoogle Scholar
  28. Negre M, Zancolo S, Malusa E, Piccone G (2006) Fertilisation of an urban park soil with municipal solid waste compost. Effects on soil properties and plant growth. Fresenius’ Environ Bull 15(3):200–206Google Scholar
  29. Palazzo AJ, Reynolds SM (1991) Long-term changes in soil and plant metal concentrations in an acidic dredge disposal site receiving sewage sludge. Water Air Soil Pollut 57–58:839–848CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Perez B (2001) Use of microwave single extractions for metal fractionation in biosolids samples. Anal Chim Acta 43:209–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Pueyo M, Sastre J, Hernández E, Vidal M, Lopez-Sánchez JF (2003) Prediction of trace element mobility in contaminated soils by sequential extraction. J Environ Qual 32:2054–2066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ram LC, Srivasta NK, Tripathi RC, Jha SK, Sinha AK, Singh G, Manoharan V (2006) Management of mine spoils for crop productivity with lignite fly ash and biological amendments. J Environ Manag 79(2):173–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Richards BK, Steenhuis TS, Peverly JH, McBride MB (1998) Metal mobility at an old, heavily loaded sludge application site. Environ Pollut 99:365–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Shuman LM (1982) Separating soil iron and manganese-oxide fractions for microelement analysis. Soil Sci Soc Am J 46:1099–1102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Singh SP, Tack FM, Verloo MG (1998) Heavy metal fractionation and extractability in dredged sediment derived surface soils. Water Air Soil Pollut 102:313–328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tessier A, Campbell PGC, Muntau H, Griepick B (1979) Sequential extraction procedure for the speciation of particulate trace metals. Anal Chem 51(7):844–851CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Rosen V, Chen Y (2014) The influence of compost addition on heavy metal distribution between operationally defined geochemical fractions and on metal accumulation in plant. J Soils Sediments 14:713–720CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Soriano-Disla JM, Gómez I, Jordán MM (2014) The transfer of heavy metals to barley plants from soils amended with sewage sludge with different heavy metals burdens. J Soils Sediments 14:667–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Manuel M. Jordán
    • 1
    Email author
  • Beatriz Rincón-Mora
    • 1
  • María Belén Almendro-Candel
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agrochemistry and the EnvironmentMiguel Hernández University of ElcheElcheSpain

Personalised recommendations