Interactive effects of biochar and the earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus on plant productivity and soil enzyme activities
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- Paz-Ferreiro, J., Fu, S., Méndez, A. et al. J Soils Sediments (2014) 14: 483. doi:10.1007/s11368-013-0806-z
There is a growing interest in the use of soil enzymes as early indicators of soil quality change under contrasting agricultural management practices. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the use of biochar to improve soil properties and thus soil quality. In addition, earthworms can also be used to ameliorate soil properties. However, there is no literature available on how biochar and earthworms interact and affect soil enzymes.
The general objective of the present study was to test the suitability of adding biochar and earthworms in two tropical soils with low fertility status in order to improve their characteristics and productivity.
Materials and methods
Biochars were prepared from four different materials [sewage sludge (B1), deinking sewage sludge (B2), Miscanthus (B3) and pine wood (B4)] on two tropical soils (an Acrisol and a Ferralsol) planted with proso millet (Panicum milliaceum L.). In addition, in order to investigate the interaction between earthworms and biochar, earthworm Pontoscolex corethrurus was added to half of the mesocosms, while excluded in the remaining half. The activities of invertase, β-glucosidase, β-glucosaminidase, urease, phosphomonoesterase and arylsulphatase were determined. The geometric mean of the assayed enzymes (GMea) was used as an integrative soil quality index.
Results and discussion
Overall, earthworms and especially biochar had a positive effect on soil quality. GMea showed B1, B2 and B3 performing better than B4; however, results were soil specific. Plant productivity increased under both biochar and earthworm addition. Fruit productivity and plant growth was enhanced by B1 and B2 but not by B3 or B4.
Enhancements of productivity and soil enzymatic activities are possible in the presence of earthworms and the combination of the practices earthworm and biochar addition can be suggested in low fertility tropical soils. However, scientists should proceed carefully in the selection of biochars as the results of this study show a high specificity in the biochar–soil interaction.