Advertisement

Journal of Soils and Sediments

, Volume 12, Issue 2, pp 291–305 | Cite as

Reservoir sedimentation and its mitigating strategies: a case study of Angereb reservoir (NW Ethiopia)

  • Nigussie Haregeweyn
  • Bekure Melesse
  • Atsushi Tsunekawa
  • Mitsuru Tsubo
  • Derege Meshesha
  • Bedru Babulo Balana
SEDIMENTS, SEC 5 • SEDIMENT MANAGEMENT • RESEARCH ARTICLE

Abstract

Purpose

The Angereb dam in northwestern Ethiopia was commissioned in 1997 to serve as a domestic water supply for 25 years. However, its sustainability is being threatened by rapid sedimentation. The overall objective of this study was to understand reservoir sedimentation in this tropical highland watershed and to propose its mitigating strategies that would contribute to the improved planning and management of reservoirs in similar regions.

Materials and methods

The reservoir’s surface area and capacity at every 1-m elevation difference were generated based on point (x, y, z) data collected by bathymetric surveys in 2005 and 2007. Rates of reservoir capacity loss and sediment yield during 1997–2005, 1997–2007, and 2005–2007 were calculated and the life of the reservoir was projected. Then an identification of sediment-mitigating strategies was performed by employing a multicriteria decision analysis technique.

Results and discussion

The annual total capacity loss during 1997–2005, 1997–2007, and 2005–2007 was estimated at 4.02%, 3.16%, and 3.03%, respectively, and the relatively decreasing trend is attributed to the impact of limited soil and water conservation practices implemented in the watershed at the later stage of the dam project. Comparison of capacity–elevation–area curves between 2005 and 2007 showed that sediments were distributed across the reservoir floor, though most (68%) deposition occurred below the dead storage level. The actual life of the Angereb reservoir was projected to be 3 years, which means that the remaining dead storage capacity will be silted up completely by the end of the rainy season in 2011. The rapid sedimentation is due to both technical and environmental factors.

Conclusions

Both curative and preventive sediment management strategies were proposed: (1) removal of sediment using machinery or manual labor and promoting use of the sediments for farmland reclamation, and (2) implementation of specific area-targeted watershed management interventions. In the short-term, the reservoir life can be extended by raising the intake level of the pump suction pipe. For sustainable dam and reservoir design, top priority should be given to building a reliable sediment yield database, development and adoption of appropriate methodologies for predicting sediment yield, and capacity building of designers.

Keywords

Angereb dam Bathymetric survey Capacity loss Ethiopia Multicriteria decision analysis Sediment management strategies Sediment yield 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the Ethiopian Ministry of Water Resources for providing the year 2005 reservoir bathymetric data and the Sustainable Water Harvesting and Institutional Strengthening in Amhara (SWHISA) for funding the bathymetric survey of 2007. Finally, this study benefited substantially from the comments by the two anonymous reviewers and the two editors.

References

  1. Admasu T (2007) Evaluation of sediment yield on Angereb watershed, North Western Ethiopia. Unpublished M.Sc thesis, Arba Minch University. pp 235Google Scholar
  2. Alvarez-Guerra M, Canis L, Voulvoulis N, Viguri JR, Linkov I (2010) Prioritization of sediment management alternatives using stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis. Sci Total Environ 408:4354–4367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ambers KR (2001) Using the sediment record in a western Oregon flood control reservoir to assess the influence of storm history and logging on sediment yield. J Hydrol 244:181–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Annandale WG (2006) Encyclopedia of hydrological sciences. Wiley, DenverGoogle Scholar
  5. Apitz SE, Davis JW, Finkelstein K, Hohreiter DW, Hoke R, Jensen RH (2005) Assessing and managing contaminated sediments: part I, developing an effective investigation and risk evaluation strategy. Integr Environ Assess Manag 1:2–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baker D, deNoyelles F (2010) Can reservoir management reduce sediment deposition? Kansas Biological Survey, University of Kansas, pp 57–60Google Scholar
  7. Betrie GD, Mohamed YA, van Griensven A, Srinivasan R (2011) Sediment management modelling in the Blue Nile Basin using SWAT model. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 15:807–818CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bridges T, Apitz S, Evison L, Keckler K, Logan M, Nadeau S, Wenning R (2006) Risk based decision making to manage contaminated sediments. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2:51–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brown CB (1943) Discussion of sedimentation in reservoirs. In: Witzing J (ed) Proc. of the ASCE 69:1493–1500Google Scholar
  10. Choubey VK (1994) Assessment of sediment distribution pattern in Tungabhadra reservoir using satellite imagery. J Indian Soc Remote Sens 22:103–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Clark R (1996) Methodologies for the economic analysis of soil erosion control. CSERGE working paper GEC 96–13. Overseas Development Group, University of Anglia, NorwichGoogle Scholar
  12. MS Consultant (2010) Review and study of ground water potential for borehole sitting, Gondar Town water supply and sanitation service, pp 167Google Scholar
  13. de Vente J, Poesen J, Arabkhedri M, Verstraeten G (2007) The sediment delivery problem revisited. Prog Phys Geogr 31:155–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dearing JA (1992) Sediment yields and sources in a Welsh upland lake-catchment during the past 800 years. Earth Surf Process Landforms 17:1–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dendy FE, Bolton GC (1976) Sediment yield-runoff-drainage area relationships in the United States. J Soil Wat Conserv 31:264–266Google Scholar
  16. Descheemaeker K, Nyssen J, Rossi J, Poesen J, Haile M, Raes D, Muys B, Moeyersons J, Deckers J (2006) Sediment deposition and pedogenesis in exclosures in the Tigray Highlands, Ethiopia. Geoderma 132:291–314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. DFID (2004) Guidelines for predicting and minimizing sedimentation in small dams. Department for International Development. HR Wallingford Ltd, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  18. Dietrich WE (1982) Settling velocity of natural particles. Water Resour Res 18:1615–1626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dunbar JA, Allen P, Higley PD (1999) Multifrequency acoustic profiling for water reservoir sedimentation studies. J Sediment Res 69:512–527Google Scholar
  20. Fleming G (1969) Design curves for suspended load estimation. Proc Inst Civ Eng 43:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Furnans J, Austin B (2008) Hydrographic survey methods for determining reservoir volume. Environ Model Softw 23:139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Guitouni A, Marte J (1998) Tentative guidelines to help choosing an appropriate MCDA method. Eur J Oper Res 109:501–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Haregeweyn N, Yohannes F (2003) Testing and evaluation of agricultural non-point source pollution model (AGNPS) on Agucho Catchment, Western Harerghie. Agric Ecosyst Environ 99:201–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Haregeweyn N, Poesen J, Nyssen J, Verstraeten G, de Vente J, Deckers J, Moeyersons J (2005) Specific sediment yield in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: assessment and semi-quantitative modelling. Geomorphology 69:315–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Haregeweyn N, Poesen J, Nyssen J, De Wit J, Haile H, Govers G, Deckers J (2006) Reservoirs in Tigray: characteristics and sediment deposition problems. Land Degrad Dev 17:211–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Haregeweyn N, Poesen J, Deckers J, Nyssen J, Haile M, Govers G, Verstraeten G, Moeyersons J (2008a) Assessment and evaluation of sediment-bound nutrient export and associated costs from micro-dam watersheds of Northern Ethiopia. Land Degrad Dev 19:136–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Haregeweyn N, Poesen J, Nyssen J, Govers G, Verstraeten G, de Vente J, Deckers J, Moeyersons J, Haile M (2008b) Sediment yield variability in Northern Ethiopia: a quantitative analysis of its controlling factors. Catena 75:65–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Haregeweyn N, Poesen J, Govers G, Verstraeten G, de Vente J, Nyssen J, Deckers S, Moeyersons J (2011) Evaluation and adaptation of a spatially-distributed erosion and sediment yield model in Northern Ethiopia. Land Degrad Dev (in press)Google Scholar
  29. Hengsdijk H, Meijerink GW, Mosugu ME (2005) Modelling the effect of three soil and water conservation practices in Tigray, Ethiopia. Agric Ecosyst Environ 105:29–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hong GH, Kim SH, Suedel BC, Clarke JU, Kim J (2010) A decision-analysis approach for contaminated dredged material management in South Korea. Integr Environ Assess Manag 6:72–82Google Scholar
  31. Humphreys H, Bellier C, Kennedy R, Dokin K (1997) Tekeze medium hydropower report. Annex B-hydrology report. Ministry of Water Resources, Addis Ababa, p 264Google Scholar
  32. ICOLD (1997) International Commission on Large Dams. Question 74a Performance of reservoirs sedimentation: 41 papers. 19th Congress on Large Dams. Florence (Italy) May 1997. Paris, FranceGoogle Scholar
  33. Jansson MB (1988) A global survey of sediment yield. Geogr Annal A 70:81–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Jetten V, Govers G, Hessel R (2003) Erosion models: quality of spatial predictions. Hydrol Process 17:887–900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Kramer RA, Richter DD, Pattayanak S, Sharma NP (1997) Ecological and economic analysis of watershed protection in Eastern Madagascar. J Environ Manage 49:277–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lahlou A (1988) The silting of Moroccan dams. In: Sediment Budgets. IAHS Publ 174, pp 71–77Google Scholar
  37. Le Houérou HN (2000) Restoration and rehabilitation of arid and semiarid Mediterranean ecosystems in North Africa and West Asia: a Review. Arid Soil Res Rehab 14:3–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Linkov I, Satterstrom FK, Kiker G, Batchelor C, Bridges T, Ferguson E (2006) From comparative risk assessment to multi-criteria decision analysis and adaptive management: recent developments and applications. Environ Int 32:1072–1093CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Mekuria W, Veldkamp E, Haile M, Nyssen J, Muys B, Gebrehiwot K (2007) Effectiveness of exclosures to restore degraded soils as a result of overgrazing in Tigray, Ethiopia. J Arid Environ 69:270–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mekuria W, Veldkamp E, Tilahun M, Olschewski R (2011a) Economic valuation of land restoration: the case of exclosures established on communal grazing lands in Tigray, Ethiopia. Land Degrad Dev 22(3):334–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Mekuria W, Veldkamp E, Corre MD, Haile M (2011b) Restoration of ecosystem carbon stocks following exclosure establishment in communal grazing lands in Tigray, Ethiopia. Forest, Range Wildland Soils 75:1–11Google Scholar
  42. Morris G, Fan J (1998) Reservoir sedimentation handbook. Design and management of dams, reservoirs and watersheds for sustainable use. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  43. Navas A, Valero-Garces B, Gaspar L, Machin J (2009) Reconstructing the history of sediment accumulation in the Yesa reservoir: an approach for management of mountain reservoirs. Lake Reservoir Manag 25:15–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Nega F, Mathijs E, Deckers J, Haile M, Nyssen J, Tollens E (2010) Rural poverty dynamics and impact of intervention programs upon chronic and transitory poverty in Northern Ethiopia. Afr Dev Rev 22:92–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Nyssen J, Poesen J, Moeyersons J, Deckers J, Haile M, Lang A (2004) Human impact on the environment in the Ethiopian and Eritrean Highlands—a State of the Art. Earth Sci Rev 64:273–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Nyssen J, Poesen J, Gebremichael D, Vancampenhout K, D’aes M, Yihdego G, Govers G, Leirs H, Moeyesons J, Naudts J, Haregeweyn N, Deckers J, Mitiku H (2007) On-site evaluation of stone bunds to control soil erosion on cropland in Northern Ethiopia. Soil Till Res 94:151–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Nyssen J, Clymans W, Poesen J, Vandecasteele I, De Baets S, Haregeweyn N, Naudts J, Hadera A, Moeyersons J, Haile M, Deckers J (2009) How soil conservation affects the watershed sediment budget—a comprehensive study in the North Ethiopian Highlands. Earth Surf Process Landforms 34:1216–1233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Palmieri A, Shah F, Dinar A (2001) Economics of reservoir sedimentation and sustainable management of dams. J Environ Manage 61:149–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Palmieri A, Shah F, Annandale G, Dinar A (2003) Reservoir conservation volume I: the RESCON approach. World Bank, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  50. Pattanayak SP (2004) Valuing watershed services: concepts and empirics from Southeast Asia. Agric Ecosyst Environ 104:171–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Pattanayak SP, Kramer RK (2001) Worth of watersheds: a producer surplus approach for valuing drought mitigation in Eastern Indonesia. Environ Dev Econ 6:123–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Pattanayak SP, Mercer ED (1996) Valuing soil conservation benefits of agroforestry practices. Southeastern center for forest economics research, research Triangle Park, NC. FPEI working paper No. 59Google Scholar
  53. Prato T (1999) Methods: multiple attributes decision analysis for ecosystem management. Ecol Econ 30:207–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. REDECO (2002) Assessment and monitoring of erosion and sedimentation problems in Ethiopia. Final Report, REDECO Consulting, GmbH, Hydrology Studies Department. Ministry of Water Resources, Addis AbabaGoogle Scholar
  55. Roberts N, Lambert R (1990) Degradation of dambo soils and peasant agriculture in Zimbabwe. In: Boardman J, Foster IDL, Dearing JA (eds) Soil erosion on agricultural land. Wiley, New York, pp 537–558Google Scholar
  56. SCRP (2000) Soil conservation research project. Soil erosion and conservation database. Concept and methodology: long-term monitoring of the agricultural environment in six research stations in Ethiopia, p 56Google Scholar
  57. Shawel Consultant (1997) Design review and modified design of intake and outlet structures of Angereb Dam, Ethiopia, unpublished reportGoogle Scholar
  58. Sichingabula HM (1997) Problems of sedimentation in small dams in Zambia. In: Human impacts on erosion and sedimentation. IAHS Publ 245, pp. 251–259Google Scholar
  59. Slaymaker O (2003) The sediment budget as conceptual framework and management tool. Hydrobiologia 494:71–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Strand RI (1975) Bureau of Reclamation Procedures for Predicting Sediment Yield. In: Present and prospective technology for predicting sediment yields and sources, pp. 10–15. USDA, Agricultural Research Service ARS-S-40Google Scholar
  61. Sumi T (2008) Evaluation of efficiency of reservoir sediment flushing in Kurobe River, ICSE, 4th International Conference on Scour and Erosion, Tokyo, pp 608–613Google Scholar
  62. Syvitski JPM, Milliman JD (2007) Geology, geography, and humans battle for dominance over the delivery of fluvial sediment to the coastal ocean. J Geol 115:1–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Tamene L, Park SJ, Dikau R, Vlek PLG (2006) Reservoir siltation in the semi-arid highlands of northern Ethiopia: sediment yield–catchment area relationship and a semi-quantitative approach for predicting sediment yield. Earth Surf Process Landforms 31:1364–1383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Tavolaro JF (1984) A sediment budget study of clamshell dredging and disposal activities in the New York Bight. Environ Geol Water Sci 6:133–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. UNEP (2003) Phytotechnologies. A technical approach in environmental management. Freshwater management series No. 7. United Nations PublicationGoogle Scholar
  66. US ACE (U.S. Army Corps of Engineers) (2004) General design and construction considerations for earth androck-fill dams. Engineer Manual, p 130Google Scholar
  67. US EPA (U.S Environmental Protection Agency) (2005) Contaminated sediment remediation guidance for hazardous waste sites. Report EPA-540-R-05-012. US EPA, Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  68. Vanmaercke M, Zenebe A, Poesen J, Nyssen J, Verstraeten G, Deckers J (2010) Sediment dynamics and the role of flash floods in sediment export from medium-sized watersheds: a case study from the semi-arid tropical highlands in northern Ethiopia. J Soils Sed 10:611–627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Verstraeten G, Poesen J (2001a) Factors controlling sediment yield from small intensively cultivated catchments in a temperate humid climate. Geomorphology 40:123–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Verstraeten G, Poesen J (2001b) Variability of dry sediment bulk density between and within retention ponds and its impact on the calculation of sediment yield. Earth Surf Process Landforms 26:375–394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Verstraeten G, Poesen J, de Vente J, Konincks X (2003) Sediment yield variability in Spain: a quantitative and semi-qualitative analysis using reservoir sedimentation rates. Geomorphology 1246:327–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Walling DE (1983) The sediment delivery problem. J Hydrol 65:209–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Walling DE (1984) The sediment yields of African rivers. In: Challenges in African hydrology and water resources. IAHS Publ 144 pp 265–283Google Scholar
  74. Walling DE (1996) Hydrology and rivers. In: Adams WE, Goudie AS, Orme AR (eds) The physical geography of Africa. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 103–121Google Scholar
  75. Walling DE (1997) The response of sediment yields to environmental change. In: Human impact on erosion and sedimentation. IAHS Publ 245, pp. 77–89Google Scholar
  76. Wang Z, Hu C (2009) Strategies for managing reservoir sedimentation. Int J Sed Res 24:369–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. WCD (2000) Dams and development, a new framework for decision making. Report of the World Commission of Dams. Earth-scan publications, LondonGoogle Scholar
  78. White WR (1990) Reservoir sedimentation and flushing. In: Hydrology in Mountainous Regions. Artificial Reservoirs; Water and Slopes. IAHS Publ. no. 194Google Scholar
  79. White WR, Bettess R (1984) The feasibility of flushing sediments through reservoirs. In: challenges in African hydrology and water resources. IAHS Publ. 144Google Scholar
  80. Williams JR (1975) Sediment yield prediction with universal equation using runoff energy factor. Proceedings of the Sediment Yield Workshop, USDA Sedimentation Laboratory, Oxford, MississippiGoogle Scholar
  81. Wischmeier WH, Smith DD (1978) Predicting rainfall erosion losses: a guide to conservation planning. Agriculture handbook, vol. 537. United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC, p 58Google Scholar
  82. Xiaoqing Y (2003) Manual on sediment management and measurement world meteorological organization. Operational Hydrology Report No. 47. Secretariat of the World Meteorological Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  83. Yatsalo B, Kiker G, Kim J, Bridges T, Seager T, Gardner K, Satterstrom K, Linkov I (2007) Application of multi-criteria decision analysis tools to two contaminated sediment case studies. Integr Environ Assess Manag 3:223–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nigussie Haregeweyn
    • 1
    • 2
  • Bekure Melesse
    • 2
  • Atsushi Tsunekawa
    • 1
  • Mitsuru Tsubo
    • 1
  • Derege Meshesha
    • 1
  • Bedru Babulo Balana
    • 3
  1. 1.Arid Land Research CenterTottori UniversityTottoriJapan
  2. 2.Department of Land Resources Management and Environmental ProtectionMekelle UniversityMekelleEthiopia
  3. 3.Social, Economic and Geographical Sciences GroupThe James Hutton InstituteAberdeenUK

Personalised recommendations