Journal of Soils and Sediments

, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 162–171 | Cite as

Freely dissolved PCDD/F concentrations in the Frierfjord, Norway: comparing equilibrium passive sampling with “active” water sampling

SEDIMENT MANAGEMENT IN NORWAY • RESEARCH ARTICLE

Abstract

Introduction

Equilibrium passive samplers consisting of 55-µm polyoxymethylene (POM) and 170-µm polydimethylsiloxane were tested for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/furan (PCDD/F) in the pore water and overlying water of the Frierfjord, a bay in southern Norway. This fjord is heavily polluted with PCDD/Fs due to emissions from a former Mg smelter.

Results and Discussion

Field exposures of both equilibrium passive sampler types yielded similar results for freely dissolved PCDD/F concentrations (CW,free) in the overlying water. In addition, the passive sampling data deviated less than an order of magnitude from CW,free obtained with conventional “active” sampling through pumping/filtration over glass fiber filters and polyurethane foam. A similar comparison was done for the pore water, where POM passive samplers also proved to yield freely dissolved pore water concentrations (CPW,free) that deviated less than an order of magnitude from earlier published values measured by direct pore water extraction. The data were also used to derive sediment–water activity ratios, which indicate the diffusive flux direction. High sediment-to-water activity ratios (median value of 160 for 17 congeners) indicated a strong diffusion gradient between the sediment pore water and the overlying water, probably due to deposition of particle-bound PCDD/Fs in combination with low sedimentation rates.

Keywords

PCDD/F Frierfjord Equilibrium passive sampling Free concentrations 

Abbreviations

AOC

Amorphous organic carbon

CPW,free

Freely dissolved pore water concentration

CW,free

Freely dissolved fjord water concentration

DOC

Dissolved organic carbon

GFF

Glass fiber filters

K

Solid–water distribution ratio

PCDD/F

Polychlorinated dibenzodioxin/furan

POM

Polyoxymethylene (passive sampler)

PDMS

Polydimethylsiloxane (passive sampler)

PUF

Polyurethane foam

TOC

Total organic carbon

WHO-TEQ

World Health Organization toxic equivalents

Supplementary material

11368_2009_152_MOESM1_ESM.doc (148 kb)
ESM1(DOC 151 kb)

References

  1. Adams RG, Lohmann R, Fernandez LA, MacFarlane JK, Gschwend PM (2007) Polyethylene devices: passive samplers for measuring dissolved hydrophobic compounds in aquatic environments. Environ Sci Technol 41:1317–1323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baker JE, Eisenreich SJ (1989) PCBs and PAHs as tracers of particulate dynamics in large lakes. J Great Lakes Res 15:84–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bandh C, Ishaq R, Broman D, Näf C, Rönquist-Nii Y, Zebühr Y (1996) Separation for subsequent analysis of PCBs, PCDD/Fs, and PAHs according to aromaticity and planarity using a two-dimensional HPLC system. Separation for subsequent analysis of PCBs, PCDD/Fs, and PAHs according to aromaticity and planarity using a two-dimensional HPLC system. Environ Sci Technol 30:214–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Booij K, Hoedemaker JR, Bakker JF (2003) Dissolved PCBs, PAHs, and HCB in pore waters and overlying waters of contaminated harbor sediments. Environ Sci Technol 37:4213–4220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Breedveld GD, Pelletier E, St. Louis R, Cornelissen G (2007) Sorption Characteristics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Aluminum Smelter Residues. Environ Sci Technol 41:2542–2547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Broman D, Colmsjo A, Ganning B, Näf C, Zebühr Y (1988) A multi sediment trap experiment on the temporal and spacial variability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and lead in Archipelago waters (Baltic Proper). Environ Sci Technol 22:1219–1228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Broman D, Kugelberg J, Näf C (1990) Two hydrodynamically stable self-suspended buoyant sediment traps. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 30:429–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Broman D, Näf C, Rolff C, Zebühr Y (1991) PCB and PAH dynamics in a small rural lake. Environ Sci Technol 25:1850–1864CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burkhard LP (2000) Estimating dissolved organic carbon partition coefficients for nonionic organic chemicals. Environ Sci Technol 34:4663–4668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cornelissen G, Gustafsson Ö (2004) Sorption of phenanthrene to environmental black carbon in sediment with and without organic matter and native sorbates. Environ Sci Technol 38:148–154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Cornelissen G, Wiberg K, Broman D, Arp HPH, Persson Y, Sundqvist K, Jonsson P (2008a) Freely dissolved concentrations and sediment-water activity ratios of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in the open Baltic Sea. Environ Sci Technol 42:8733–8739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cornelissen G, Pettersen A, Broman D, Mayer P, Breedveld GD (2008b) Field testing of equilibrium passive samplers to determine freely dissolved native PAH concentrations. Environ Toxicol Chem 27:499–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cornelissen G, Cousins IT, Wiberg K, Tysklind M, Holmström H, Broman D (2008c) Black carbon-dominated PCDD/Fs sorption to soils at a former wood impregnation site. Chemosphere 72:1455–1461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cornelissen G, Arp HPH, Pettersen A, Hauge A, Breedveld GD (2008d) Assessing PAH and PCB emissions from the relocation of harbour sediments using equilibrium passive samplers. Chemosphere 72:1581–1587CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gustafsson Ö, Bucheli TD, Kukulska Z, Andersson M, Largeau C, Rouzard JN, Reddy CM, Eglinton TI (2001) Evaluation of a protocol for the quantification of black carbon in sediments. Global Biogeochem Cycles 15:881–889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Huckins JN, Petty JD, Booij K (2006) Monitors of organic chemicals in the environment: semipermeable membrane devices. Springer, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Isosaari P, Kankaanpää H, Mattila J, Kiviranta H, Verta M, Salo S, Vartiainen T (2002) Spatial distribution and temporal accumulation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls in the Gulf of Finland. Environ Sci Technol 36:2560–2565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jeremiason J, Eisenreich S, Baker J, Eadie B (1998) PCB decline in settling particles and benthic recycling of PCBs and PAHs in Lake Superior. Environ Sci Technol 32:3249–3256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jonker MTO, Koelmans AA (2001) Polyoxymethylene solid phase extraction as a partitioning method for hydrophobic organic chemicals in sediment and soot. Environ Sci Technol 35:3742–3748CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lohmann R, MacFarlane JK, Gschwend PM (2005) Importance of black carbon to sorption of native PAHs, PCBs, and PCDDs in Boston and New York Harbor sediments. Environ Sci Technol 39:141–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mayer P, Tolls J, Hermens JLM, Mackay D (2003) Equilibrium sampling devices. Environ Sci Technol 37:184A–191ACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Næs K, Axelman J, Näf C, Broman D (1998) Role of soot carbon and other carbon matrices in the distribution of PAHs among particles, DOC, and the dissolved phase in the effluent and recipient waters of an aluminum reduction plant. Environ Sci Technol 32:1786–1792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Persson NJ, Gustafsson Ö, Bucheli TD, Ishaq R, Naes K, Broman D (2002) Soot-carbon influenced distribution of PCDD/Fs in the marine environment of the Grenlandsfjords, Norway. Environ Sci Technol 36:4968–4974CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Persson NJ, Bucheli TD, Gustafsson Ö, Broman D, Næs K, Ishaq R, Zebühr Y (2005) Testing common sediment–porewater distribution models for their ability to predict dissolved concentrations of POPs in The Grenlandsfjords, Norway. Chemosphere 59:1475–1485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Persson NJ, Cousins IT, Molvær J, Broman D, Næs K (2006) Modelling the long-term fate of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) in the Grenland Fjords, Norway. Sci Tot Environ 369:188–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Saloranta TM, Armitage JM, Haario H, Næs K, Cousins IT, Barton DN (2008) Modeling the effects and uncertainties of contaminated sediment remediation scenarios in a Norwegian fjord by Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation. Environ Sci Technol 42:200–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Seth R, Mackay D, Muncke J (1999) Estimating the organic carbon partition coefficient and its variability for hydrophobic chemicals. Environ Sci Technol 33:2390–2394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sobek A, Gustafsson Ö, Axelman J (2003) An evaluation of the importance of the sampling step to the total analytical variance—a four system field-based sampling intercomparison study for hydrophobic organic contaminants in the surface waters of the open Baltic Sea. Int J Environ Anal Chem 83:177–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerard Cornelissen
    • 1
    • 3
  • Dag Broman
    • 3
  • Kristoffer Næs
    • 2
  1. 1.Norwegian Geotechnical Institute (NGI)OsloNorway
  2. 2.Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA)OsloNorway
  3. 3.Department of Applied Environmental Sciences (ITM)Stockholm UniversityStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations