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Table 2 Primary application areas of the recommended near-field/far-field USEtox modeling framework. The presented framework is suitable for comparative evaluations of chemicals emitted along product life cycles and chemicals in various types of product applications

From: Exposure and toxicity characterization of chemical emissions and chemicals in products: global recommendations and implementation in USEtox

Application area Product types covered (emissions are always directly or indirectly included) References
Product life cycle assessment (LCA) Food contact materials Ernstoff et al. (2019), Fig. 4 (present study)
High-throughput screening (HTS) of chemical exposure Personal care products; food contact materials ADDIN EN.CITE.DATA Csiszar et al. (2016), Ernstoff et al. (2016), Ernstoff et al. (2017)
High-throughput screening (HTS) of chemical risk Children toys; building materials Huang et al. (2019), Aurisano et al. (2021)
Chemical exposure and risk prioritization Household products (cleaning, personal care, and home maintenance products) Jolliet et al. (2021), Fig. 4 (present study)
Chemical alternatives assessment (CAA) and chemical substitution Building materials; personal care products; pesticides Fantke et al. (2016), Steingrímsdóttir et al. (2018), Fantke et al. (2020b)