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Table 5 Global warming potential results in kg CO2e per 48 oz. of milk produced (without packaging)

From: Life cycle assessment of California unsweetened almond milk

SourceProcess stageMilk type
PeaAlmondSoyCoconutOatDairy
This study (2017 results)Farming0.11
Processing0.28
Total0.39
Clune et al. (2017)Total0.581.210.581.90
Florén et al. (2013)Farming0.111.52
Processing0.420.18
Total0.541.70
Grant and Hick (2017)Total0.400.241.72
Henderson and Unnasch (2017)aFarming0.090.050.041.81
Processing0.350.340.370.16
Total0.440.390.421.97
Thoma et al. (2013a), Thoma et al. (2013b)bFarming1.67
Processing0.13
Total1.80
Granarolo (2016)Farming0.67
Processing0.38
Total1.05
  1. aCo-product credits (− 0.14 kg CO2e for pea and − 0.023 kg CO2e for almond) are included in the processing stage
  2. bTotal value is derived from Thoma et al. (2013a), breakdown by life cycle stage based on Thoma et al. (2013b)