Skip to main content

Social life cycle assessment framework for evaluation of potential job creation with an application in the French carbon fiber aeronautical recycling sector

Abstract

Purpose

Due to the increased consumption of carbon fibers, it is expected that an important amount of carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP)-based products will enter in the coming years, at the end of their life cycle. Considering the challenges ahead in the establishment of a new recycling sector, it is appropriate to investigate the sustainable creation of a CFRP end-of-life management sector. The following work is part of a national funded project called SEARRCH, whose goal was to provide sustainability assessment indicators and methodology to stakeholders, for the implementation of a carbon fiber recycling sector. This article will focus on detailing the methodology aiming at characterizing the social dimension through the evaluation of potential job creation.

Methods

This publication describes the development of a method for the evaluation of potential job creation built on an adaptation of the Hunkeler societal life cycle assessment (societal LCA). This methodology based on life cycle inventory (LCI) has been adapted using input-output tables from the French national institute of statistics and economic studies (INSEE) or the Social Hotspot Database (SHDB) and a material flow analysis (MFA). A practical application in the CFRP recycling sector is then described. This research was conducted as part of a national project funded by the French Government France; therefore, this study respects data corresponding to the French national borders and assumes the use of a pyrolysis recycling process in calculating the amount of CFRP production and waste available at the end-of-life stage from the aeronautical sector.

Results and discussion

The amount of direct and indirect employment was obtained for different periods of time. Using technical coefficients extracted from the SHDB, it was determined that for the CFRP coming from the aeronautical sector, 85 direct and indirect induced jobs would be created for the period between 2046 and 2050. Using technical coefficients calculated from the input-output tables provided by the INSEE, the estimated number of jobs was 108 for the same period.

Conclusions

This publication demonstrated that the quantity of CFRP at the end-of-life stage could represent a potential benefit for direct and indirect job creation if the implementation of the end-of-life CFRP sector is anchored in a sustainable way, by establishing a new recycling sector for this material. Moreover, this method can provide calculations for other periods of time, sectors, and geographic scales, separately or in combination.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  • Andrews E, Lesage P, Benoît C, Parent J, Norris G, Revéret J-P (2009) Life cycle attribute assessment. J Ind Ecol 13:565–578

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Benoît-Norris C, Aulisio D, G.A.N (2013) The Social Hotspots Database [WWW Document]. URL https://www.socialhotspot.org/ (accessed 8.30.18)

  • Bouvier G (2000) Les comptes d’emploi, d’heures travaillées et de productivité’. INSEE Base

  • Chang Y, Ries RJ, Wang Y (2011) The quantification of the embodied impacts of construction projects on energy, environment, and society based on I–O LCA. Energy Policy 39:6321–6330

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ciroth A, Eisfeldt F (2016) PSILCA—a product social impact life cycle assessment database

  • Deboutières A, Georgeault L (2015) Quel potentiel d’emplois pour une économie circulaire ? In: Institut de l’économie circulaire

    Google Scholar 

  • Dwyer L, Forsyth P, Spurr R (2004) Evaluating tourism’s economic effects: new and old approaches. Tour Manag 25:307–317

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Emmerich R, Kuppinger J (2014) Recovering carbon fibers. Kunststoffe Int 2014:62–65

  • European Investment Bank (2013) The Economic Appraisal of Investment Projects at the EIB - Projects Directorate 2013

  • EUROSTAT S (2013) European Commission (Eurostat). Retrieved February 27, 2019, from https://www.ec.europa.eu/eurostat/fr/data/database

  • Feschet P (2014) Analyse de Cycle de Vie Sociale. Pour un nouveau cadre conceptuel et théorique

  • Franze J, Ciroth A (2011) A comparison of cut roses from Ecuador and the Netherlands. Int J Life Cycle Assess 16:366–379

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Garrabé M (2016) Evaluation économique générale

  • Griffing E, Overcash M (2010) Carbon fiber HS from PAN [UIDCarbFibHS]

  • Helbig C, Gemechu ED, Pillain B, Young SB, Thorenz A, Tuma A, Sonnemann G (2016) Extending the geopolitical supply risk indicator: application of life cycle sustainability assessment to the petrochemical supply chain of polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fibers. J Clean Prod 137:1170–1178

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Hunkeler D (2006) Societal LCA methodology and case study. Int J Life Cycle Assess 11:371–382

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • INSEE (2017) Le tableau des entrées-sorties (TES) [WWW Document]. URL https://www.insee.fr/fr/statistiques/2383687#documentation (accessed 3.29.17)

  • ISO 14044 (2006) ISO 14044: Environmental Management, Life Cycle Assessment, Requirements and Guidelines, International Organization for Standardization

  • Jolliet O, Saadé M, Crettaz P (2010) Analyse du cycle de vie: comprendre et réaliser un écobilan (Vol. 23). PPUR Presses polytechniques

  • Labuschagne C, Brent AC (2008) An industry perspective of the completeness and relevance of a social assessment framework for project and technology management in the manufacturing sector. J Clean Prod 16:253–262

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lee CK, Taylor T (2005) Critical reflections on the economic impact assessment of a mega-event: the case of 2002 FIFA World Cup. Tour Manag 26:595–603

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lefeuvre A, Garnier S, Jacquemin L, Pillain B, Sonnemann G (2017) Anticipating in-use stocks of carbon fiber reinforced polymers and related waste flows generated by the commercial aeronautical sector until 2050. Resour Conserv Recycl 125:265–272

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lenzen M, Moran D, Kanemoto K (2013) Building Eora : a global multi- region input—output database at high country and sector resolution building Eora : a global multi-region input—output database at high country and sector resolution. Econ Syst Res 25:20–49. https://doi.org/10.1080/09535314.2013.769938

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Leontief W (1986) Input-output economics. Oxford University Press

  • Macombe C, Lagarde V, Falque A, Feschet P, Garrabé M, Gillet C, Loeillet D (2013) Social LCAs. Socioeconomic effects in value chains, 1srt Editi. ed. FruiTrop, CIRAD

  • Manik Y, Leahy J, Halog A (2013) Social life cycle assessment of palm oil biodiesel: a case study in Jambi Province of Indonesia. Int J Life Cycle Assess 18:1386–1392

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Murray J (2015) The sustainability practitioner’s guide to social analysis and assessment. Common Ground Publishing, 264 pp

  • NEA (2006) Selected recent statistics on road freight transport in Europe. Organisation mondiale du transport routier (IRU). Rijswijk. Retrieved from https://www.iru.org/sites/default/files/2016-01/en-statisticsgoods_0.pdf. Accessed 27 Feb 2019

  • Norris G.A, Benoit-Norris C (2015) The Social Hotspots Database Context of the SHDB. In: Murray J, Mcbain D, Wiedmann T (Eds) The Sustainability Practitioner’s Guide to Social Analysis and Assessment; ; Common Ground Publishing: Champaign, IL, USA, pp. 52–73

  • Norris C, Norris G, Aulisio D (2014) Efficient assessment of social hotspots in the supply chains of 100 product categories using the social hotspots database. Sustainability 6:6973–6984

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nunes AO, Viana LR, Guineheuc PM, da Silva Moris VA, de Paiva JMF, Barna R, Soudais Y (2017) Life cycle assessment of a steam thermolysis process to recover carbon fibers from carbon fiber-reinforced polymer waste. Int J Life Cycle Assess 23:1825–1838

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Papong S, Itsubo N, Malakul P, Shukuya M (2015) Development of the social inventory database in Thailand using input-output analysis. Sustainability (Switzerland) 7:7684–7713. https://doi.org/10.3390/su7067684

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Paragahawewa U, Blankett P, Small B (2009) Social life cycle analysis (S-LCA): some methodological issues and potential application to cheese production in New Zealand 42

  • Pickering SJ (2006) Recycling technologies for thermoset composite materials—current status. Compos Part A Appl Sci Manuf 37:1206–1215

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pillain B, Gemechu E, Sonnemann G (2017) Identification of key sustainability performance indicators and related assessment methods for the carbon fiber recycling sector. Ecol Indic 72:833–847

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pimenta S, Pinho ST (2011) Recycling carbon fibre reinforced polymers for structural applications: technology review and market outlook. Waste Manag 31:378–392

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Rebitzer G, Ekvall T, Frischknecht R, Hunkeler D, Norris G, Rydberg T, Schmidt WP, Suh S, Weidema BP, Pennington DW (2004) Life cycle assessment part 1: framework, goal and scope definition, inventory analysis, and applications. Environ Int 30:701–720

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Roux M, Dransfeld C, Giger L (2013) Recycling of high performance thermoplastic composites with high voltage fragmentation, in: The 19th International Conference on Composite Materials. pp 1–8

  • Roux M, Eguémann N, Dransfeld C, Thiébaud F, Perreux D (2017) Thermoplastic carbon fibre-reinforced polymer recycling with electrodynamical fragmentation. J Thermoplast Compos Mater 30:381–403

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Short W, Packey DJ, Holt T (1995) A manual for the economic evaluation of energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies. National Renewable Energy Laboratory:96

  • United Nations Environment Programme (2009) Guidelines for social life cycle assessment of products. United Nations Environment Programme

  • Valerian F, du Fou de Kerdaniel F (2013) L’industrie du recyclage en France : changer de dimension pour créer des emplois

  • Weisbrod G, Weisbrod B (1997) Measuring economic impact of projects apd programs. Transp Res Circ #477:1–34

  • Witik RA, Teuscher R, Michaud V, Ludwig C, Månson J-AE (2013) Carbon fibre reinforced composite waste: an environmental assessment of recycling, energy recovery and landfilling. Compos Part A Appl Sci Manuf 49:89–99

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Witten E, Jahn B, Karl D (2015) Composites market report 2015. Mark Dev Trends, Challenges Oppor, pp 2–28

  • Zamani B, Sandin G, Svanström M, Peters GM (2018) Hotspot identification in the clothing industry using social life cycle assessment—opportunities and challenges of input-output modelling. Int J Life Cycle Assess 23:536–546

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support from the French National Research Agency (ANR), which funded the SEARRCH project (Sustainability Engineering Assessment Research for Recycled Composites with High value) in which this research was conducted (project ID: ANR-13-ECOT-0005).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Baptiste Pillain.

Additional information

Responsible editor: Marzia Traverso

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Pillain, B., Viana, L.R., Lefeuvre, A. et al. Social life cycle assessment framework for evaluation of potential job creation with an application in the French carbon fiber aeronautical recycling sector. Int J Life Cycle Assess 24, 1729–1742 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11367-019-01593-y

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11367-019-01593-y

Keywords

  • Carbon fiber-reinforced plastic
  • CFRP
  • Job creation
  • Life cycle inventory
  • Pyrolysis recycling
  • Social LCA