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Table 1 Surplus cost potential (SCP) of fossil and mineral resources, the latter determined for reserves

From: Comparing mineral and fossil surplus costs of renewable and non-renewable electricity production

Name Unit Element Surplus cost potential (SCP) USD2013/unit Source
Crude oil kg   4.57 × 10-1 Empirically derived
Natural gas Nm3   3.01 × 10-1 Empirically derived
Hard coal kg   3.41 × 10-2 Empirically derived
Crude oil GJhhv   9.97 × 100 Empirically derived
Natural gas GJhhv   7.87 × 100 Empirically derived
Hard coal GJhhv   1.79 × 100 Empirically derived
Aluminium kg Al 4.03 × 10-1 Derived from price
Antimony kg Sb 1.89 × 100 Derived from price
Arsenic kg As 1.57 × 10-1 Derived from price
Ball clay kg   9.27 × 10-3 Derived from price
Barite kg   2.88 × 10-2 Derived from price
Bauxite kg   6.06 × 10-3 Derived from price
Bentonite clay kg   1.39 × 10-2 Derived from price
Beryllium kg Be 7.57 × 101 Derived from price
Bismuth kg Bi 3.48 × 100 Derived from price
Boron kg B 1.39 × 10-1 Derived from price
Cadmium kg Cd 3.73 × 10-1 Derived from price
Cesium kg Ce 1.00 × 104 Derived from price
Chromium kg Cr 4.56 × 10-1 Derived from price
Chrysotile kg   3.56 × 10-1 Derived from price
Clay, unspecified kg   1.35 × 10-2 Derived from price
Cobalt kg Co 5.00 × 100 Derived from price
Copper kg Cu 5.21 × 10-1 Vieira et al. (2016)
Diamond (industrial) kg C 8.99 × 101 Derived from price
Diatomite kg   6.02 × 10-2 Derived from price
Feldspar kg   1.97 × 10-2 Derived from price
Fire clay kg   5.01 × 10-3 Derived from price
Fuller’s earth kg   1.91 × 10-2 Derived from price
Gallium kg Ga 8.26 × 101 Derived from price
Germanium kg Ge 3.00 × 102 Derived from price
Gold kg Au 6.54 × 103 Derived from price
Graphite kg C 2.27 × 10-1 Derived from price
Gypsum kg   3.80 × 10-3 Derived from price
Hafnium kg Hf 9.49 × 101 Derived from price
Ilmenite kg   4.82 × 10-2 Derived from price
Indium kg In 1.01 × 102 Derived from price
Iodine kg I 7.53 × 100 Derived from price
Iron kg Fe 1.15 × 10-2 Vieira et al. (2016)
Iron ore kg   2.22 × 10-2 Derived from price
Kaolin kg   3.08 × 10-2 Derived from price
Kyanite kg   6.16 × 10-2 Derived from price
Lead kg Pb 1.44 × 10-1 Vieira et al. (2016)
Lime kg   2.55 × 10-2 Derived from price
Lithium kg Li 8.32 × 10-1 Derived from price
Magnesium kg Mg 8.96 × 10-1 Derived from price
Manganese kg Mn 1.39 × 100 Vieira et al. (2016)
Mercury kg Hg 9.44 × 100 Derived from price
Molybdenum kg Mo 2.15 × 100 Vieira et al. (2016)
Nickel kg Ni 2.54 × 100 Vieira et al. (2016)
Palladium kg Pd 1.92 × 103 Vieira et al. (2016)
Perlite kg   1.19 × 10-2 Derived from price
Phosphorus kg P 1.73 × 10-1 Derived from price
Platinum kg Pt 6.30 × 103 Vieira et al. (2016)
Potash kg   1.25 × 10-1 Derived from price
Pumice and pumicite kg   7.58 × 10-3 Derived from price
Rhenium kg Re 4.92 × 102 Derived from price
Rhodium kg Rh 1.35 × 104 Vieira et al. (2016)
Rutile kg   2.12 × 10-1 Derived from price
Selenium kg Se 1.39 × 101 Derived from price
Silicon kg Si 4.95 × 10-1 Derived from price
Silver kg Ag 7.31 × 101 Vieira et al. (2016)
Strontium kg Sr 1.06 × 10-1 Derived from price
Talc kg   4.70 × 10-2 Derived from price
Tantalum kg Ta 5.29 × 101 Derived from price
Tellurium kg Te 1.93 × 101 Derived from price
Thallium kg Tl 1.09 × 103 Derived from price
Tin kg Sn 4.13 × 100 Derived from price
Titanium kg Ti 9.93 × 10-1 Derived from price
Titanium dioxide kg   5.92 × 10-1 Derived from price
Tripoli kg   4.34 × 10-2 Derived from price
Tungsten kg W 8.23 × 100 Derived from price
Uranium kg U 1.21 × 101 Vieira et al. (2016)
Vanadium kg V 4.29 × 100 Derived from price
Wollastonite kg   4.46 × 10-2 Derived from price
Zinc kg Zn 9.04 × 100 Vieira et al. (2016)
Garnets kg   5.88 × 10-2 Derived from price
Gemstones kg   6.86 × 103 Derived from price
Platinum-group metals (PGM) kg   5.35 × 103 Vieira et al. (2016)
Rare earth metals kg   3.46 × 100 Derived from price
Zirconium mineral concentrates kg   2.08 × 10-1 Derived from price
  1. The items presented in italic are the metal/mineral groups, the others are individual metals or minerals