Review: life cycle assessments in Nigeria, Ghana, and Ivory Coast



Life cycle assessments (LCAs) are considered common quantitative environmental techniques to analyze the environmental impact of products and/or services throughout their entire life cycle. A few LCA studies have been conducted in West Africa. This study aimed to discuss the availability of LCA (and similar) studies in Nigeria, Ghana, and Ivory Coast.


An online literature review of reports published between 2000 and 2016 was conducted using the following keywords: “life cycle assessment,” “carbon footprinting,” “water footprinting,” “environmental impact,” “Nigeria,” “Ghana” and “Ivory Coast.”

Results and discussion

A total of 31 LCA and environmental studies in Nigeria, Ghana, and Ivory Coast were found; all but one were conducted after 2008. These were mainly academic and most were publicly available. The industries studied included energy sector, waste management, real estate, food sector, and others such as timber and gold. The minimal number of studies on LCAs and environmental impacts in these West African states could be because companies are failing to promote quantitative environmental studies or studies are kept internally for the use of other assessment techniques. Furthermore, it could be that academic research institutions lack cutting-edge research resources for LCA, environmental impact, carbon, and water footprinting studies.


Further quantitative environmental studies should be conducted in Nigeria, Ghana, and Ivory Coast to increase the understanding of environmental impacts. In these countries, the existence of LCA studies (and by association the localized life cycle inventory (LCI) datasets) is crucial as more companies request this information to feed into background processes.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2


  1. Adewumi IK, Oyebode OJ, Igbokwe KC, Aluko OG (2011) Water footprints in four selected breweries in Nigeria. In: Finkbeiner M (ed) Sustainable Life Cycle Management. Springer Science, Dordrecht, pp 171–181

    Google Scholar 

  2. Afrane G, Ntiamoah A (2011) Comparative life cycle assessment of charcoal, biogas, and liquefied petroleum gas as cooking fuels in Ghana. J Ind Ecol 15(4):539–549

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Afrane G, Ntiamoah A (2012) Analysis of the life-cycle costs and environmental impacts of cooking fuels used in Ghana. Appl Energ 98:301–306

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Africa Ranking (2016) Africa ranking website,

  5. Ajayi OO, Ohijeagbon OD, Aasa SA, Omotosho OA (2014) Techno-economic assessment of renewable electricity for rural electrification and IT applications in selected sites across the geopolitical zones of Nigeria, Vision 2020: sustainable growth, economic development, and global competitiveness

  6. Akinpelu EO (2011) Sizing and cost assessment of solar PV system for energy supply in the telecommunications industry in Nigeria. J Engineer Appl Sci 6(2):130–134

    Google Scholar 

  7. Akinyele DO, Rayudu RK (2016) Comprehensive techno-economic and environmental impact study of a localized photovoltaic power system (PPS) for off-grid communities. Ener Conv Manag 124:266–279

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Asase M, Yanful EK, Mensah M, Stanford J, Amponsah S (2009) Comparison of municipal solid waste management systems in Canada and Ghana: a case study of the cities of London, Ontario, and Kumasi, Ghana. Waste Manag 29(10):2779–2786

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Bartlett ZP, Olivares A, Lu Y, Rosentrater KA (2014) Economic and environmental analysis of farm-scale biodigesters to produce energy for kitchen stove use, agricultural and biosystems engineering conference proceedings and presentations. Iowa State University, USA

    Google Scholar 

  10. Casa ME, Leiva EH, González PB (2011) Life cycle assessment of the Unión Fenosa LNG chain: a Mediterranean case. IGT International Liquefied Natural Gas Conference Proceedings, Oran, Algeria

  11. Dufo-López R, Zubi G, Fracastoro GV (2009) Tecno-economic assessment of an off-grid PV-powered community kitchen for developing regions. Appl Energ 91:255–262

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Ecoinvent (2017) Ecoinvent homepage,, 16/02/2017

  13. Engelbrecht D (2010) The life cycle assessment of cyanide containers in Ghana, MSc thesis. University of South Africa

  14. Eshun JF, Potting J, Leemans R (2010) Inventory analysis of the timber industry in Ghana. Int J Life Cycle Assess 15(7):715–725

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Eshun JF, Potting J, Leemans R (2011) LCA of the timber sector in Ghana: preliminary life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). Int J Life Cycle Assess 16(7):625–638

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Ewemoje TA, Oluwaniyi OO (2016) Mechanised shea butter production in south-western Nigeria using life cycle assessments (LCA) approach from gate-to-gate. AgriEngInt: CIGR Journal 18(2):230–241

    Google Scholar 

  17. Ezema IC, Olotuah AO, Fagbenle OI (2015) Estimating embodied energy in residential buildings in a Nigerian context. Int J Appl Eng Res 10(24):44140–44149

    Google Scholar 

  18. Ezema IC, Opoko AP, Oluwatayo AA (2016) De-carbonizing the Nigerian housing sector: the role of life cycle CO2 assessment. Int J Appl Env Sci 11(1):325–349

    Google Scholar 

  19. FSP (2016) Côte d’Ivoire: financial sector profile.

  20. Galgani P, van der Voet E, Korevaar G (2014) Composting, anaerobic digestion and biochar production in Ghana. Environmental-economic assessment in the context of voluntary carbon markets. Waste Manag 34(12):2454–2465

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. GRI (2016) Global reporting initiative,, 16/02/2017

  22. Gujba H, Mulugetta Y, Azapagic A (2010) Environmental and economic appraisal of power generation capacity expansion plan in Nigeria. Energ Pol 38(10):5636–5652

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Gujba H, Mulugetta Y, Azapagic A (2013) Passenger transport in Nigeria: environmental and economic analysis with policy recommendations. Energ Pol 55:353–361

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Hyde K (2013) An evaluation of the theoretical potential and practical opportunity for using recycled greywater for domestic purposes in Ghana. J Clean Prod 60:195–200

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. ISO (2017a) 14040: environmental management—life cycle assessment—principles and framework

  26. ISO (2017b) 14044: environmental management—life cycle assessment—requirements and guidelines

  27. ISO (2017c) 14046: environmental management—water footprint—principles, requirements and guidelines

  28. ISO (2017d) 14064: ISO 14064–1 greenhouse gases—part 1—specification for the quantification, monitoring and reporting of entity emissions and removals; ISO 14064–2 greenhouse gases—part 2—specification for the quantification, monitoring and reporting of project emissions and removals; ISO 14064–3 greenhouse gases—part 3—specification and guidance for validation, verification and certification

  29. ISO (2017e) 14067: greenhouse gases—carbon footprint of products—requirements and guidelines for quantification and communication

  30. Jedwab R, Moradi A (2012) Revolutionizing transport: modern infrastructure, agriculture and development in Ghana. London School of Economics, UK

    Google Scholar 

  31. Jekayinfa SO, Olaniran JA, Sasanya BF (2013) Life cycle assessment of soybeans production and processing system into soy oil using solvent extraction process. Int J of Prod Lifecycle Manag 6(4):311–320

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Ndong R, Montrejaud-Vignoles M, Girons OS, Gabrielle B, Pirot R, Domergue M, Sablayrolles C (2009) Life cycle assessment of biofuels from Jatropha curcas in West Africa: a field study. GCB Bioenergy 1:197–210

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Ntiamoah A, Afrane G (2008) Environmental impacts of cocoa production and processing in Ghana: life cycle assessment approach. J Clean Prod 16(16):1735–1740

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Ntiamoah A, Afrane G (2009) Life cycle assessment of chocolate production in Ghana. In: Appropriate Technologies for Environmental Protection in the Developing World, Springer

  35. Ofori-Boateng C, Lee KT, Mensah M (2013) The prospects of electricity generation from municipal solid waste (MSW) in Ghana: a better waste management option. Fuel Process Technol 110:94–102

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Ogundipe FO, Jimoh OD (2015) Life cycle assessment of municipal solid waste management in Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. Int J Env Res 9(4):1305–1314

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  37. Ohijeagbon OD, Ajayi O (2014) Potential and economic viability of standalone hybrid systems for a rural community of Sokoto, north-West Nigeria. Frontiers in Energy 8(2):145–159

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Ohijeagbon OD, Ajayi O (2015) Solar regime and LVOE of PV embedded generation systems in Nigeria. Renew Energ 78:226–235

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Onabanjo T, Di Lorenzo G (2015) Energy efficiency and environmental life cycle assessment of Jatropha for energy in Nigeria: a “wheel-to-wheel” perspective, Proceedings of the ASME Power and Energy Conversion Conference, San Diego, USA

  40. Oparaku OU (2002) Assessment of the cost-effectiveness of photovoltaic systems for telecommunications in Nigeria. International journal of solar energy 22(3–4):123–129

  41. Pré Sustainability (2017) Pré Sustainability homepage,, 16/02/2017

  42. Rajaee M, Obiri S, Green A, Long R, Cobbina SJ, Nartey V, Buck D, Antwi E, Basu N (2015) Integrated assessment of artisanal and small-scale gold mining in Ghana. Int J Environ Res Pub Health 12:8971–9011

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Safaei A, Freire F, Antunes CH (2015) Life-cycle greenhouse gas assessment of Nigerian liquefied natural gas addressing uncertainty. Environ Sci Technol 49:3949–3957

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Scopus (2016) Content—Scopus; what content is included in Scopus,, 14/10/2016

  45. The World Factbook (2016) Central Intelligence Agency, World Factbook

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Kevin G. Harding.

Additional information

Responsible editor: Sonia Valdivia

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Maepa, M., Bodunrin, M.O., Burman, N.W. et al. Review: life cycle assessments in Nigeria, Ghana, and Ivory Coast. Int J Life Cycle Assess 22, 1159–1164 (2017).

Download citation


  • Carbon footprinting
  • Environmental impact
  • Life-cycle assessment
  • Review
  • West Africa
  • Water footprinting