Life cycle environmental assessment of industrial hazardous waste incineration and landfilling in China
- 415 Downloads
The improper handling of industrial hazardous waste (IHW), which comprises large amounts of toxic chemicals, heavy metals, or irradiation substances, is a considerable threat to human health and the environment. This study aims to quantify the life cycle environmental impacts of IHW landfilling and incineration in China, to identify its key factors, to improve its potential effects, and to establish a hazardous waste disposal inventory.
Life cycle assessment was conducted using the ReCiPe model to estimate the environmental impact of IHW landfilling and incineration. The characterization factors for the human toxicity and freshwater ecotoxicity categories shown in the ReCiPe were updated based on the geographies, population, food intake, and environmental conditions in China.
Results and discussion
The overall environmental burden was mainly attributed to the carcinogen category. The national carcinogen burden in 2014 at 37.8 CTUh was dominated by diesel consumption, cement and sodium hydroxide production, direct emission, transportation, and electricity generation stages caused by direct mercury and arsenic emissions, as well as indirect chromium emission. Although the atmospheric mercury emission directly caused by IHW incineration was comparative with the emission levels of developed countries, the annual direct mercury emission accounted for approximately 0.1% of the national mercury emission.
The key factors contributing to the reduction of the national environmental burden include the increasing diesel and electricity consumption efficiency, the reduction of cement and sodium hydroxide use, the development of air pollutant controlling systems, the reduction of transport distance between IHW disposers to suppliers, and the improvement of IHW recycling and reuse technologies.
KeywordsHazardous waste Incineration Landfilling Life cycle assessment Toxicity
We gratefully acknowledge financial support from National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant nos. 31171428; 71671105), Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University NCET-13-0344, the Institute of the Fundamental Research Funds of Shandong University (2015JC036 and 2015JC016), and China Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction Co. Ltd. (GJN-14-07).
- China Environmental Statistical Yearbook (2014) MEP (Ministry of Environmental Protection of China). Available from: <http://zls.mep.gov.cn/hjtj/nb/>
- China Statistical Yearbook 2004-2014 (2014) National bureau of statistic of China 2005–2015. Available from: < http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/>
- Ecoinvent centre (2010) Ecoinvent database. Swiss center for life cycle inventories. Available from: <http://www.ecoinvent.org>
- Global Mercury Assessment (2013) Sources, emissions, releases and environmental transport. United Nations Environment Programme Chemicals Branch: Geneva, Switzerland. Available from: < http://www.unep.org/publications/ contents/pub_details_search.asp?ID=6282 >
- Goedkoop M, Heijungs R, Huijbregts MAJ, De Schryver AM, Struijs J, Van Zelm JR (2009) Recipe, a life cycle impact assessment method which comprises harmonised category indicators at the mid-point and the endpoint level. First edition Report I: Characterization. Available from: <http://www.lcia-recipe.net >
- ISO 14040 (2006) Environmental management—life cycle assessment—principles and framework. ISBN 0 580 48993 0 Available from: < https://www.document-center.com/standards/show/ISO-14040>
- Li W, Huang Q, Lu S, Wu H, Li X, Yan J (2015) Life cycle assessment of the environmental impacts of typical industrial hazardous waste incineration in Eastern China. Aerosol Air Qual Res 15:242–251Google Scholar
- Sohaili J, Muniyandi SK, Suhaila S (2012) A review on printed circuit boards waste recycling technologies and reuse of recovered nonmetallic materials. Int J Sci Eng Res 3(2):1–7Google Scholar
- UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory Available from: < http://naei.defra.gov.uk/data/ef-all >
- USEtox™ User Manual (2010) Available from: <http://www.usetox.org/sites/default/files/support-tutorials/user_manual_usetox.pdf>