Advertisement

Life cycle environmental assessment of industrial hazardous waste incineration and landfilling in China

LCA OF WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

Abstract

Purpose

The improper handling of industrial hazardous waste (IHW), which comprises large amounts of toxic chemicals, heavy metals, or irradiation substances, is a considerable threat to human health and the environment. This study aims to quantify the life cycle environmental impacts of IHW landfilling and incineration in China, to identify its key factors, to improve its potential effects, and to establish a hazardous waste disposal inventory.

Methods

Life cycle assessment was conducted using the ReCiPe model to estimate the environmental impact of IHW landfilling and incineration. The characterization factors for the human toxicity and freshwater ecotoxicity categories shown in the ReCiPe were updated based on the geographies, population, food intake, and environmental conditions in China.

Results and discussion

The overall environmental burden was mainly attributed to the carcinogen category. The national carcinogen burden in 2014 at 37.8 CTUh was dominated by diesel consumption, cement and sodium hydroxide production, direct emission, transportation, and electricity generation stages caused by direct mercury and arsenic emissions, as well as indirect chromium emission. Although the atmospheric mercury emission directly caused by IHW incineration was comparative with the emission levels of developed countries, the annual direct mercury emission accounted for approximately 0.1% of the national mercury emission.

Conclusions

The key factors contributing to the reduction of the national environmental burden include the increasing diesel and electricity consumption efficiency, the reduction of cement and sodium hydroxide use, the development of air pollutant controlling systems, the reduction of transport distance between IHW disposers to suppliers, and the improvement of IHW recycling and reuse technologies.

Keywords

Hazardous waste Incineration Landfilling Life cycle assessment Toxicity 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We gratefully acknowledge financial support from National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant nos. 31171428; 71671105), Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University NCET-13-0344, the Institute of the Fundamental Research Funds of Shandong University (2015JC036 and 2015JC016), and China Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction Co. Ltd. (GJN-14-07).

Supplementary material

11367_2016_1228_MOESM1_ESM.docx (20 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 19 kb)

References

  1. Chen W, Hong J, Xu C (2015) Pollutants generated by cement production in China, their impacts, and the potential for environmental improvement. J Clean Prod 103:61–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chen W, Zhang F, Hong J, Shi W, Feng S, Tan X, Geng Y (2016) Life cycle toxicity assessment on deep-brine well drilling. J Clean Prod 112(1):326–332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. China Environmental Statistical Yearbook (2014) MEP (Ministry of Environmental Protection of China). Available from: <http://zls.mep.gov.cn/hjtj/nb/>
  4. China Statistical Yearbook 2004-2014 (2014) National bureau of statistic of China 2005–2015. Available from: < http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/>
  5. Cui X, Hong J, Gao M (2012) Environmental impact assessment of three coal-based electricity generation scenarios in China. Energ 45(1):952–959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. De Schryver AM, Brakkee KW, Goedkoop MJ, Huijbregts M (2009) Characterization factors for global warming in life cycle assessment based on damages to humans and ecosystems. Environ Sci Technol 43(6):1689–1695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dreyer LC, Niemann AL, Hauschild MZ (2003) Comparison of three different LCIA methods: EDIP97, CML2001 and Eco-indicator 99. Does it matter which one you choose. Int J Life Cycle Assess 8(4):191–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ecoinvent centre (2010) Ecoinvent database. Swiss center for life cycle inventories. Available from: <http://www.ecoinvent.org>
  9. Fikri E, Purwanto P, Sunoko H (2015) Modelling of household hazardous waste (HHW) management in Semarang city (Indonesia) by using life cycle assessment (LCA) approach to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Procedia Environ Sci 23:123–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ghosh B, Ghosh MK, Parhi P, Mukherjee PS, Mishra BK (2015) Waste printed circuit boards recycling: an extensive assessment of current status. J Clean Prod 94:5–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Global Mercury Assessment (2013) Sources, emissions, releases and environmental transport. United Nations Environment Programme Chemicals Branch: Geneva, Switzerland. Available from: < http://www.unep.org/publications/ contents/pub_details_search.asp?ID=6282 >
  12. Goedkoop M, Heijungs R, Huijbregts MAJ, De Schryver AM, Struijs J, Van Zelm JR (2009) Recipe, a life cycle impact assessment method which comprises harmonised category indicators at the mid-point and the endpoint level. First edition Report I: Characterization. Available from: <http://www.lcia-recipe.net >
  13. Hong J, Chen W, Wang Y, Xu C, Xu X (2014) Life cycle assessment of caustic soda production-a case study in China. J Clean Prod 66:113–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Hong J, Zhang F, Xu C, Xu X, Li X (2015) Evaluation of life cycle inventory at macro level: a case study of mechanical coke production in China. Int J Life Cycle Assess 20:751–764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. ISO 14040 (2006) Environmental management—life cycle assessment—principles and framework. ISBN 0 580 48993 0 Available from: < https://www.document-center.com/standards/show/ISO-14040>
  16. Kim JH, Park JM, Lee SB, Pudasainee D, Seo YC (2010) Anthropogenic mercury emission inventory with emission factors and total emission in Korea. Atmos Environ 44(23):2714–2721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Li W, Huang Q, Lu S, Wu H, Li X, Yan J (2015) Life cycle assessment of the environmental impacts of typical industrial hazardous waste incineration in Eastern China. Aerosol Air Qual Res 15:242–251Google Scholar
  18. Li X, Yang Y, Xu X, Xu C, Hong J (2016) Air pollution from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons generated by human activities and their health effects in China. J Clean Prod 112:1360–1367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Pennington DW, Margni M, Ammán C, Jolliet O (2005) Multimedia fate and human intake modeling: spatial versus non-spatial insights for chemical emissions in Western Europe. Environ Sci Technol 39:1119–1128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Saft R (2007) Life cycle assessment of a pyrolysis/gasification plant for hazardous paint waste. Int J Life Cycle Assess 12:230–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sleeswijk A, Van Oers L, Guinee J, Struijs J, Huijbregts M (2008) Normalisation in product life cycle assessment: an LCA of the global and European economic systems in the year 2000. Sci Total Environ 390(1):227–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sohaili J, Muniyandi SK, Suhaila S (2012) A review on printed circuit boards waste recycling technologies and reuse of recovered nonmetallic materials. Int J Sci Eng Res 3(2):1–7Google Scholar
  23. Takahishi F, Shimaoka T, Jida A (2012) Atmospheric mercury emissions from waste combustions measured by continuous monitoring devices. Air Waste Manage 62(6):686–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. UK National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory Available from: < http://naei.defra.gov.uk/data/ef-all >
  25. Vermeulen I, Caneghem J, Block C, Dewulf W, Vandecasteele C (2012) Environmental impact of incineration of calorific industrial waste: rotary kiln vs. cement kiln. Waste Manag 32:1853–1863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Xu C, Shi W, Hong J, Zhang F, Chen W (2015) Life cycle assessment of food waste-based biogas generation. Renew Sust Energ Rev 49:169–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and EngineeringShandong UniversityJinanPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.School of MedicineShandong UniversityJinanPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.College of Biotechnology and Pharmaceutical EngineeringNanjing Tech UniversityNanjingChina

Personalised recommendations