Comparative life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of lodging in the Himalaya
- 240 Downloads
The main aim of the study is to assess the environmental and economic impacts of the lodging sector located in the Himalayan region of Nepal, from a life cycle perspective. The assessment should support decision making in technology and material selection for minimal environmental and economic burden in future construction projects.
The study consists of the life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of lodging in three building types: traditional, semi-modern and modern. The life cycle stages under analysis include raw material acquisition, manufacturing, construction, use, maintenance and material replacement. The study includes a sensitivity analysis focusing on the lifespan of buildings, occupancy rate and discount and inflation rates. The functional unit was formulated as the ‘Lodging of one additional guest per night’, and the time horizon is 50 years of building lifespan. Both primary and secondary data were used in the life cycle inventory.
Results and discussion
The modern building has the highest global warming potential (kg CO2-eq) as well as higher costs over 50 years of building lifespan. The results show that the use stage is responsible for the largest share of environmental impacts and costs, which are related to energy use for different household activities. The use of commercial materials in the modern building, which have to be transported mostly from the capital in the buildings, makes the higher GWP in the construction and replacement stages. Furthermore, a breakdown of the building components shows that the roof and wall of the building are the largest contributors to the production-related environmental impact.
The findings suggest that the main improvement opportunities in the lodging sector lie in the reduction of impacts on the use stage and in the choice of materials for wall and roof.
KeywordsConstruction materials Economic impact Energy demand Environmental impact Global warming potential Net present value
- ATD Home Inspection (2015) Average life span of Homes, applicances, and mechanicals. http://www.atdhomeinspection.com/advice/average-product-life. Accessed 23 May 2015
- Bhochhibhoya S, Cavalli R (2016) Global warming assessment of Himalayan buildings. In: Balkau F, Massari S, Sonnemann G (eds) Life cycle approaches to sustainable regional development. Taylor & Francis/RoutledgeGoogle Scholar
- Chenoweth J (2009) Is tourism with a low impact on climate possible? In: Worldwide hospitality and tourism themes, pp 274–287Google Scholar
- Frischknecht R, Editors NJ, Althaus H, et al (2007) Overview and methodology ecoinvent report. No. 1. 77Google Scholar
- IPCC (2013) Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. In: Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner GK, Tignor M, Allen SK, Boschung J, Nauels A, Xia Y, Bex V, Midgley PM (eds) Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, p 1535Google Scholar
- Kirk SJ, Dell’Isola AJ (1995) Life cycle costing for design professionals. Mc Graw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Little MA, Hanna JM (1978) Responses of high-altitude populations to cold and other stresses, 1st edn. The syndics of Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
- Mearig T, Coffee N, Morgan M (1999) Life Cycle Cost Analysis HandbookGoogle Scholar
- Nepal Oil Corporation Limited (2015) Retail selling price based on KathmanduGoogle Scholar
- Pandit M (2013) The Himalayas must be protected. Int Weekely J Sci 501:283Google Scholar
- Pittet D, Jagadish KS, Kotak T et al (2012) Environmental impact of building technologies: a comparative study in Kutch District, Gujarat state, India, 1st edn. Springer, ParisGoogle Scholar
- Pokharel MR, Parajuli BK (2000) Retrofitting traditional buildings by passive solar concepts in Jumla and Solukhubu, 1st edn. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, KathmanduGoogle Scholar
- Rathcliffe J, Stubbs M (2005) Urban planning and real estate development, 2nd edn. The Natural and Built Environment Series, Taylor and FrancisGoogle Scholar
- Seebach D, Adell A, Tepper P (2011) ENG_SMART_SPP_LCC_CO2_tool_v2Google Scholar
- Sonnemann G, Castells F, Schuhmacher G (2003) Integrated life–cycle and risk assessment for industrial processes. Advanced methods in resource and waste management series, Volume 2. Advanced Methods in Reserouce and Waste Management, Lewis PublishersGoogle Scholar
- Sterner E (2002) Green procurement of buildings estimation of environmental impact and life-cycle cost. Civ Min Eng Div Steel Struct PhD:185Google Scholar
- UNEP (2009) Buildings and climate change: a summary for decision-makers. 15 Rue de Milan, 75441 Paris CEDEX 09, FranceGoogle Scholar
- Weidema B, Bauer C, Hischier R et al (2013) Swiss Centre for Life Cycle Inventories overview and methodology (final)(v3)Google Scholar
- World Bank (2015) Inflation, consumer prices (annual %). In: World Bank Gr. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/FP.CPI.TOTL.ZG/countries/NP?display=graph. Accessed 20 Sep 2015