Can social research paradigms justify the diversity of approaches to social life cycle assessment?

  • Nathalie Iofrida
  • Anna Irene De Luca
  • Alfio Strano
  • Giovanni Gulisano
SOCIAL LCA IN PROGRESS

Abstract

Purpose

The present paper aims to offer an explanation for the diversity of methodological approaches proposed up to the present for social life cycle assessment (sLCA), tracking down its roots in the cultural and scientific heritage of social sciences and especially management sciences. A second aim is to shift the current debate on methodologies to an epistemological level, presenting the first results of an ongoing critical review about which underlying paradigms have been applied in sLCA literature.

Methods

This paper moves from the hypothesis that the diversity of positions in philosophy of science and the “multiparadigmatic” character of social sciences have had repercussions on sLCA literature since its beginnings, probably in an unconscious manner. Therefore, a discriminating reflection on the scientific and disciplinary inheritance that can represent the roots of sLCA has been conducted. The philosophy of science and the role of different research paradigms in social sciences have been deepened to provide an overview of the main elements of a paradigm (in terms of ontology, epistemology, and methodology). Finally, a brief but critical review of 133 selected scientific contributions on sLCA has been conducted to highlight which paradigms have been applied in sLCA studies.

Results and discussion

Recognizing that boundaries between paradigms are subtle and that researchers are rarely conscious of which paradigm underpins their works, a distinction between the interpretivist and post-positivist approaches used by the studies has been carried out on the basis of a text analysis conducted by identifying the main “literal” criteria. From an initial population of 209 studies, we excluded those concerning reviews of sLCA literature and those with selected criteria that were insufficient to catch the epistemological viewpoint of the authors. Among the remaining papers (133), 73 % has been ascribed to the group of interpretivism-oriented paradigms and only 24 % could be ascribed to the post-positivist one; the remaining 3 % is represented by studies with both characteristics. This data deserves some attention because, since the beginnings of sLCA methodologies, most sLCA publications explicitly suggest having the same underlying perspectives as environmental life cycle assessment (eLCA).

Conclusions

In light of the reflections carried out, we argue that it is important, before going into methodological questioning issues, to be aware of which paradigm is underlying. Indeed, in this phase of sLCA development, scholars should go beyond the simple methodological debate and recognize the “multilayered” nature of social phenomena and the multiparadigmatic characteristics of social and management sciences.

Keywords

Epistemology Interpretivism Literature review Post-positivism Research paradigms sLCA Social sciences 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their helpful and constructive comments that greatly contributed to improving the paper. They would also like to thank the Editors for their generous comments and support during the review process. This paper is cofounded by the European Commission, European Social Fund, and by the Region of Calabria. This paper is the sole responsibility of the authors; the European Commission and the Region of Calabria cannot be held responsible for any use that may be made of the information contained herein. Moreover, the contents of this paper are coherent with the research activities of the national project “Multidisciplinary and innovative methodologies for sustainable management in agricultural systems” carried out by the AGRARIA (Agricultural Studies) Department of the Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria and supported by the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR), within the framework of FIRB Program 2012.

Supplementary material

11367_2016_1206_MOESM1_ESM.xlsx (31 kb)
ESM 1 (XLSX 30 kb)

References

  1. Abercrombie N, Hill S, Turner BS (2006) The penguin dictionary of sociology. Fifth edition. Penguin Books, London, p. 498Google Scholar
  2. Allard-Poesi F, Perret V (2014) Fondements épistémologiques de la recherche. In: Thietart R-A et al. (eds) Méthodes de recherche en management, 4th edition. Dunod, ParisGoogle Scholar
  3. Arcese G, Lucchetti MC, Massa I, Valente C (2016) State of the art in S-LCA: integrating literature review and automatic text analysis. Int J Life Cycle Assess. doi: 10.1007/s11367-016-1082-0 Google Scholar
  4. Arvidsson R, Baumann H, Hildenbrand J (2015) On the scientific justification of the use of working hours, child labour and property rights in social life cycle assessment: three topical reviews. Int J Life Cycle Assess 20:161–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Avenier MJ, Gavard-Perret M-L (2012) Inscrire son projet de recherche dans un cadre épistémologique. In: Gavard-Perret M-L, Gotteland D, Haon C, Jolibert A (eds) Méthodologie de la recherche en sciences de gestion –Réussir son mémoire ou sa thèse, 2è édit. Pearson Education France, Paris, pp. 11–62Google Scholar
  6. Bailey KD (2007) Methods of social research, 4th edition. The Free Press, New York, p. 612Google Scholar
  7. Batty M (2008) Generative social science: a challenge. Environ Plan B: Plan Des 35:191–194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baumann H, Arvidsson R, Tong H, Wang Y (2013) Does the production of an airbag injure more people than the airbag saves in traffic? J Ind Ecol 17(4):517–527CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Becker HA, Vanclay F (2003) The International Handbook of Social Impact Assessment. Conceptual and Methodological Advances. Edward Elgar Cheltenham, UK, Northampton, MA, USA, pp 328Google Scholar
  10. Benoît-Norris C, Aulisio Cavan D, Norris GA (2012) Identifying social impacts in product supply chains: overview and application of Social Hotspot Database. Sustainability 4:1946–1965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bertrand JW, Fransoo JC (2002) Operations management research methodologies using quantitative modeling. Int J Oper Man 22(2):241–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bird A (2013) Thomas Kuhn. In: Zalta EN (ed) The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2013 Edition). Retrieved from: [http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2013/entries/thomas-kuhn] Accessed on 15th December 2014
  13. Bocoum I, Macombe C, Revéret J-P (2015) Anticipating impacts on health based on changes in income inequality caused by life cycles. Int J Life Cycle Assess 20:405–417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Boell SK, Cecez-Kecmanovic D (2010) Literature reviews and the hermeneutic circle. Aust Acad Res Libr 41(2):129–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Boell SK, Cecez-Kecmanovic D (2014) A hermeneutic approach for conducting literature reviews and literature searches, communications of the association for information systems: Vol. 34, Article 12Google Scholar
  16. Boltanski L, Thévenot L (1991) De la Justification, les Economies de la Grandeur. Gallimard, ParisGoogle Scholar
  17. Boudon R (1997) Metodologia della sociologia e delle scienze sociali. Editorial Jaca Book spa, MilanGoogle Scholar
  18. Boudon R, Cipolla C, Cipriani R, Barbano F (1995) Sociologia. In: Enciclopedia Italiana, V Appendice, Istituto dell’Enciclopedia Italiana, RomeGoogle Scholar
  19. Bouzid A, Padilla M (2014) Analysis of social performance of the industrial tomatoes food chain in Algeria. NEW MEDIT N. 1/2014, pp 60–65Google Scholar
  20. Carter SM, Little M (2007) Justifying knowledge, justifying method, taking action: epistemologies, methodologies, and methods in qualitative research. Qual Health Res 17(10):1316–1328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Chambers R (1994) Participatory rural appraisal (PRA): analysis of experience. World Dev 22(9):1253–1268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chang Y-J, Sproesser G, Neugebauer S, Wolf K, Scheumann R, Pittner A, Finkbeiner M (2015) Environmental and social life cycle assessment of welding technologies. Procedia CIRP 26:293–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chhipi-Shrestha G, Hewage K, Sadiq R (2015) “Socializing” sustainability: a critical review on current development status of social life cycle impact assessment method. Clean Techn Environ Policy 17:579–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Comte A (1988) Introduction to positive philosophy. Hackett Publishing Company, Indianapolis, USAGoogle Scholar
  25. Corbetta P (2003) Social research. Theory, methods and techniques. SAGE Publications, London, p. 328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Creswell JW (2013) Research design. Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. SAGE, London, p. 273Google Scholar
  27. Cupchik G (2001) Constructivist realism: an ontology that encompasses positivist and constructivist approaches to the social sciences. Forum: Qual Soc Res Vol 2 n.1Google Scholar
  28. Darlaston-Jones D (2007) Making connections: the relationship between epistemology and research methods. Aust Community Psychol 19(1):19–27Google Scholar
  29. David A, Hatchuel R, Laufer R (eds) (2013) New foundations of management research. Presses des Mines, ParisGoogle Scholar
  30. De Luca AI, Falcone G, Iofrida N, Stillitano T, Strano A, Gulisano G (2015a) Life cycle methodologies to improve agri-food systems sustainability. Riv Studi Sost 1:135–150Google Scholar
  31. De Luca AI, Iofrida N, Strano A, Falcone G, Gulisano G (2015b) Social life cycle assessment and participatory approaches: a methodological proposal applied to citrus farming in Southern Italy. Integr Environ Assess Manag 11(3):383–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. De Luca AI, Molari G, Seddaiu G, Toscano A, Bombino G, Ledda L, Milani M, Vittuari M (2015c) Multidisciplinary and innovative methodologies for sustainable management in agricultural systems. Environ Eng Manag J 14(7):1571–1581Google Scholar
  33. Denzin NK, Lincoln YS (2005) The SAGE handbook of qualitative research. Sage Publications, LondonGoogle Scholar
  34. Dilthey W (1883) An introduction to the human sciences. In: W Dilthey (1976). [Translated from Gesammelte Schriften, Vol. I, xv-xiv, 14–21]Google Scholar
  35. Dilthey W (2002) Selected works, vol. 4: Hermeneutics and the Study of History, Makkreel R, Rodi F (Eds), Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJGoogle Scholar
  36. Dumez H (2010) Eléments pour une épistémologie de la recherche qualitative en gestion. Ou que répondre à la question: « quelle est votre posture épistémologique? ». Le Libellio a’ AEGIS 6(4):3–16Google Scholar
  37. Durkheim É (1895) Les Règles de la méthode sociologique. Alcan, ParisGoogle Scholar
  38. Easterby-Smith M, Thorpe R, Jackson P (2012) Management research. 4th edition. Sage, London, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  39. EC (2001) Green Paper Promoting a European framework for Corporate Social Responsibility. COM(2001) 366 final, 18.7.2001, BrusselsGoogle Scholar
  40. Fan Y, Wu R, Chen J, Apul D (2015) A review of social life cycle assessment methodologies. In: Muthu SS (ed) Social life cycle assessment. An insight. Springer Science + Business Media Singapore, pp 1–23Google Scholar
  41. Feschet P (2014) Analyse du Cycle de Vie Sociale. Pour un nouveau cadre conceptuel et théorique. Thèse doctorale. Université Montpellier 1 - Faculté d’EconomieGoogle Scholar
  42. Feschet P, Macombe C, Garrabé M, Loeillet D, Rolo Saez A, Benhmad F (2013) Social impact assessment in LCA using the Preston pathway. Int J Life Cycle Assess 18:490–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Finnveden G, Hauschild MZ, Ekvall T, Guinée J, Heijungs R, Hellweg S, Koehler A, Pennington D, Suh S (2009) Recent developments in life cycle assessment. J Env Manage 91(1):1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Freudenburg WR (1986) Social impact assessment. Annu Rev Sociol:451–478Google Scholar
  45. Friedman M (2007) The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits. In: Zimmerli WCh, Richter K, Holzinger M (eds) Corporate ethics and corporate governance. Springer, pp 173–178Google Scholar
  46. Frostell B (2013) Life cycle thinking for improved resource management: LCA or? In: Kauffman J, Lee K-M (eds) Handbook of sustainable engineering. Springer, Netherlands: Dordrecht, pp. 837–857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Gadamer HG (1976) Philosophical hermeneutics, Linge DE (trans). University of California Press, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  48. Galbreath J (2006) Corporate social responsibility strategy: strategic options, global considerations. CG 6(2):175–187Google Scholar
  49. Garrabé M, Feschet P (2013) A specific case: capacities social LCA. In: Macombe C et al. (eds) Social LCAs. Socio-economic effects in value chains. Fruitrop Thema, Montpellier, pp. 87–118Google Scholar
  50. Girod-Séville M, Perret V (1999) Fondements épistémologique de la recherche. In: Thiétart RA et al. (ed) Méthodes de recherche en management, DunodGoogle Scholar
  51. Goodwin WL, Goodwin LD (1996) Understanding quantitative and qualitative research in early childhood education. Teachers College PressGoogle Scholar
  52. Grant MJ, Booth A (2009) A typology of reviews: an analysis of 14 review types and associated methodologies. Health Inf Libr J 26:91–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Guba EG (1990) The alternative paradigm dialog. In: Guba EG (ed) The paradigm dialog. Sage publications, London, pp. 17–27Google Scholar
  54. Guba EG, Lincoln YS (1994) Competing paradigms in qualitative research. In: Denzin NK, Lincoln YS (eds) Handbook of qualitative research. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, pp. 105–117Google Scholar
  55. Gummesson E (2000) Qualitative methods in management research. SAGE, Thousand Oaks, CA, p. 264Google Scholar
  56. Heidegger M (1996) Being and time. A translation of Sein und Zeit, Stambaugh J (Trans), State University of New York PressGoogle Scholar
  57. Heiskanen E (2002) The institutional logic of life cycle thinking. J Clean Prod 10:427–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hesse-Biber SN (2010) Mixed methods research. Merging theory with practice. The Guildford Press, New York, p. 242Google Scholar
  59. Hesse-Biber SN, Leavy PL (2011) The practice of qualitative research. Second edition. SAGE, Thousand Oaks, p. 424Google Scholar
  60. Horne RE (2009) Life cycle assessment: origins, principles and context. In: Horne R, Grant T, Verghese K, (Eds) Life Cycle Assessment. Principles, Practice and Prospects. CSIRO publishing, pp 1–8Google Scholar
  61. Hunkeler D (2006) Societal LCA methodology and case study (12 pp). Int J Life Cycle Assess 11(6):371–382Google Scholar
  62. Iofrida N (2016) Paradigmatic stances and methodological issues in social life cycle assessment. Comparison of two different methodological proposals applied to agricultural products. PhD thesis. Mediterranean University of Reggio Calabria, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  63. Iofrida N, De Luca AI, Strano A, Gulisano G (2014) Social Life Cycle Assessment in a constructivist realism perspective: a methodological proposal. In: Macombe C, Loeillet D (eds) Pre-proceeding of the 4th International Seminar in Social LCA, Social LCA in progress, Fruitrop Thema, Cirad, November 19–21, MontpellierGoogle Scholar
  64. ISO (2006a) 14040:2006 Environmental management - Life cycle assessment - Principles and frameworkGoogle Scholar
  65. ISO (2006b) 14044:2006 Environmental management - Life cycle assessment - Requirements and guidelines. Environ. Manag. - Life cycle Assess. - Princ. FrameworkGoogle Scholar
  66. Jansen H (2010) The logic of qualitative survey research and its position in the field of social research methods. Forum Qual Soc Res 11(2) art.11Google Scholar
  67. Johnson RB, Christensen L (2014) Educational research: quantitative, qualitative, and mixed approaches. SAGE, London, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  68. Johnson P, Duberley J (2000) Understanding management research. Sage, London, EnglandCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Jørgensen A, Lai LCH, Hauschild MZ (2010) Assessing the validity of impact pathways for child labour and well-being in social life cycle assessment. Int J Life Cycle Assess 15:5–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kuhn T (1962) The structure of Scientific Revolutions. The University of Chicago PressGoogle Scholar
  71. Kuhn T (1970) The structure of Scientific Revolutions. 2nd edition. The University of Chicago PressGoogle Scholar
  72. Lehmann A, Russi D, Bala A, Finkbeiner M, Fullana-i-Palmer P (2011) Integration of social aspects in decision support, based on life cycle thinking. Sustainability 3(12):562–577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Levers M-J D (2013) Philosophical paradigms, grounded theory, and perspectives on emergence. SAGE Open October–December 2013:1–6Google Scholar
  74. Lincoln YS, Lynham SA, Guba EG (2011) Paradigmatic controversies, contradictions, and emerging confluences, revisited. In: Denzin NK and Lincoln YS (Eds) The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research – 4th Edition, London, EnglandGoogle Scholar
  75. Macombe C (2014) Searching for social peace: a Theory of Justice to determine the nature of impacts in social LCA. Pre-proceeding of the 4th International Seminar in Social LCA, Social LCA in progress, Fruitrop Thema, Cirad, November 19–21, MontpellierGoogle Scholar
  76. Macombe C, Loeillet D (2013) Social life cycle assessment, for who and why? In: Macombe C (ed) Social LCAs. Socio-economic effects in value chains. CIRAD, pp 35–52Google Scholar
  77. Macombe C, Leskinen P, Feschet P, Antikainen R (2013) Social life cycle assessment of biodiesel production at three levels: a literature review and development needs. J Clean Prod 52:205–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Manik Y, Leahy J, Halog A (2013) Social life cycle assessment of palm oil biodiesel: a case study in Jambi Province of Indonesia. Int J Life Cycle Assess 18(7):1386–1392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Martìnez-Blanco J, Lehmann A, Muñoz P, Assumpció A, Traverso M, Rieradevall J (2014) Application challenges for the social LCA of fertilizers within life cycle sustainability assessment. J Clean Prod 69:34–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mathé S (2014) Integrating participatory approaches into social life cycle assessment: the SLCA participatory approach. Int J Life Cycle Assess 19:1506–1514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Mattioda AR, Mazzi A, Canciglieri Junior O, Scipioni A (2015) Determining the principal references of the social life cycle assessment of products. Int J Life Cycle Assess 20(8):1155–1165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Maurand-Valet A (2010) Choix méthodologiques en science de gestion: pourquoi tant de chiffres? Crises et nouvelle problématiques de la Valeur, May, Nice, France. Retrieved from [https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00479481]
  83. Max-Neef M (1991) Human-scale development: conception, application and further reflection. Apex, LondonGoogle Scholar
  84. McKenzie N, Knipe S (2006) Research dilemmas: paradigms, methods and methodology. IIER 16(2):193–205Google Scholar
  85. Meadows DH, Meadows DL, Randers J, Behrens WW III (1972) The limits to growth. Universe Books, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  86. Mertens DM (2007) Transformative paradigm: mixed methods and social justice. J Mix Method Res 1(3):212–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Merton RK, Coleman JS, Rossi PH (eds) (1979) Qualitative and quantitative social research: Papers in Honor of Paul F. Lazarsfeld. The Free PressGoogle Scholar
  88. Neugebauer S, Traverso M, Scheumann R, Chang Y-J, Wolf K, Finkbeiner M (2014) Impact pathways to address social well-being and social justice in SLCA—fair wage and level of education. Sustainability 6(8):4839–4857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Neugebauer S, Martinez-Blanco J, Scheumann R, Finkbeiner M (2015) Enhancing the practical implementation of life cycle sustainability assessment—proposal of a tiered approach. J Clean Prod 102:165–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Norris G (2006) Social impacts in product life cycles—towards life cycle attribute assessment. Int J Life Cycle Assess 11(0):97–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. O’Brien M, Doig A, Clift R (1996) Social and environmental life cycle assessment (SELCA) approach and methodological development. Int J Life Cycle Assess 4:231–237CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Parent J, Cucuzzella C, Revéret JP (2010) Impact assessment in SLCA: sorting the sLCIA methods according to their outcomes. Int J Life Cycle Assess 15(2):164–171Google Scholar
  93. Petti L, Serreli M, Di Cesare S (2016) Systematic literature review in social life cycle assessment. Int J Life Cycle Assess. doi: 10.1007/s11367-016-1135-4 Google Scholar
  94. Phoenix C, Osborne NJ, Redshaw C, Moran R, Stahl-Timmins W, Depledge MH, Lora EF, Wheeler BW (2013) Review. Paradigmatic approaches to studying environment and human health: (forgotten) implications for interdisciplinary research. Environ Sci Pol 25:218–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Piaget J (1967) Nature et methodes de l’épistèmologie. In: Piaget J (ed) Logique et connaissance scientifique. Gallimard, ParisGoogle Scholar
  96. Popper KR (1962) Conjectures and refutations. The growth of scientific knowledge. Basic Books, New York, XII, p. 412Google Scholar
  97. Porter ME, Kramer MR (2006) The link between competitive advantage and corporate social responsibility. Harvard. Bus Rev 84(12):78–92Google Scholar
  98. Raut UR, Veer NB (2014) Management research: to understand the role of epistemology in management research. JMS 4(1):64–70Google Scholar
  99. Reitinger C, Dumke M, Barosevcic M, Hillerbrand RA (2011) Conceptual framework for impact assessment within SLCA. Int J Life Cycle Assess 16:380–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Revéret J-P, Couture J-M, Parent J (2015) Socioeconomic LCA of milk production in Canada. In: Muthu SS (Ed) Social life cycle assessment. An Insight. Springer, pp 25–69Google Scholar
  101. Ritzer G (1975) Sociology: a multiple paradigm science. Allyn and Bacon, BostonGoogle Scholar
  102. Ritzer G (2010) Sociological theory, 8th edn. McGraw Hill, New York, p. 664Google Scholar
  103. Sala S, Farioli F, Zamagni A (2013a) Progress in sustainability science: lessons learnt from current methodologies for sustainability assessment: part 1. Int J Life Cycle Assess 18:1653–1672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Sala S, Farioli F, Zamagni A (2013b) Life cycle sustainability assessment in the context of sustainability science progress (part 2). Int J Life Cycle Assess 18:1686–1697CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Schleiermacher F (1998) Hermeneutics and criticism and other writings. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  106. Schwandt TA (2001) Dictionary of qualitative inquiry. 2nd edition. SAGE, Thousand Oaks, CAGoogle Scholar
  107. Seadon J (2010) Life cycle management—science meets society. WasteMINZ Conference, Auckland, 12–15 October 2010Google Scholar
  108. Sen A (2000) Development as freedom. Anchor, New York, p 384Google Scholar
  109. Sen AK (2005) Human rights and capabilities. J Hum Dev 6(2):151–166Google Scholar
  110. Shepherd C, Challenger R (2013) Revisiting paradigm(s) in management research: a rhetorical analysis of the paradigm wars. Int J Manag Rev 15:225–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Sułkowski L (2010) Two paradigms in management epistemology. JOIM 2(1):109–119Google Scholar
  112. Swarr T (2009) Societal life cycle assessment—could you repeat the question? Int J Life Cycle Assess 14(4):285–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Tacconi L (1998) Scientific methodology for ecological economics. Ecol Econ 27:91–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Tashakkori A, Teddlie C (eds) (2010) The SAGE handbook of mixed methods in social & behavioral research. SAGE Publications, Inc., CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  115. Teddlie C, Tashakkori A (2010) Overview of contemporary issues in mixed methods research. In: Tashakkori A, Teddlie C (eds) Sage handbook of mixed methods in social & behavioral research. Sage, California, pp. 1–41Google Scholar
  116. Thiétart RA, Allard-Poesi F, Angot J, Baumard P, Blanc A, Cartier M, et al. (2014) Méthodes de recherche en management. 4th edition. Dunod, ParisGoogle Scholar
  117. Tinker T, Lowe T (1982) The management science of the management sciences. Human Relations 35(4):331–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Traverso M, Finkbeiner M, Jørgensen A, Schneider L (2012) Life cycle sustainability dashboard. J Ind Ecol 16(5):680–688CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. UNEP (1992) Rio Declaration on Environment and Development. Rio de JaneiroGoogle Scholar
  120. UNEP-SETAC (2009) Guidelines for social life cycle assessment of products. United Nations Environment ProgrammeGoogle Scholar
  121. UNEP-SETAC (2013) The methodological sheets of sub-categories in Social Life Cycle Assessment (sLCA). Available at: http://www.lifecycleinitiative.org.www.estis.net/sites/lcinit/
  122. United Nations (1972) Report of United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, Stockholm 5–16 June 1972. Available at: www.un-documents.net/aconf48-14r1.pdf
  123. Velmuradova M (2003) Epistémologie et Méthodologie de Recherche en Science de Gestion. Note de Synthèse, Université de Toulon-VarGoogle Scholar
  124. Wagner W, Hansen K, Kronberger N (2014) Quantitative and qualitative research cross cultures and languages: cultural metrics and their application. Integr Psych Behav 48:418–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. WCED (1987) Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development: Our Common Future, Vol. 154, pp 374Google Scholar
  126. Weber M (1922) Economy and society: an outline of interpretive sociology. Trans. G. Roth and G. Wittlich. New YorkGoogle Scholar
  127. Weber M (1947) The fundamental concepts of sociology in the theory of social and economic organization (trans: Henderson AM, Parsons T). The Free Press of Glencoe, LondonGoogle Scholar
  128. Weidema BP (2006) The integration of economic and social aspects in life cycle impact assessment. Int J Life Cycle Assess 11(0):89–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Weldegiorgis FS, Franks DM (2014) Social dimensions of energy supply alternatives in steelmaking: comparison of biomass and coal production scenarios in Australia. J Clean Prod 84:281–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Whitley R (1984) The fragmented state of management studies: reasons and consequences. J Manage Stud 21(3):331–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Wu R, Yang D, Chen J (2014) Social life cycle assessment revisited. Sustainability 6:4200–4226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Yeganeh H, Su Z (2005) Positivism and constructivism: two opposite but reconcilable paradigms in cross-cultural management research. Proceedings of Administrative Sciences Association of Canada (ASAC) Conference, Toronto, Canada, pp 137–148Google Scholar
  133. Zamagni A, Feschet P, De Luca AI, Iofrida N, Buttol P (2016) Social life cycle assessment. In: Dewulf J, De Meester S, Alvarenga R (eds) Sustainability assessment of renewables-based products: methods and case studies. Wiley, Chichester, West Sussex, United KingdomGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nathalie Iofrida
    • 1
  • Anna Irene De Luca
    • 1
  • Alfio Strano
    • 1
  • Giovanni Gulisano
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agriculture (AGRARIA)Mediterranean University of Reggio CalabriaReggio CalabriaItaly

Personalised recommendations