Advertisement

The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment

, Volume 22, Issue 11, pp 1864–1874 | Cite as

Promoting life cycle thinking for sustainability in the mining sector of the Philippines

  • Raquel M. BalanayEmail author
  • Anthony Halog
PROMOTING SUSTAINABILITY IN EMERGING ECONOMIES VIA LIFE CYCLE THINKING

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to promote life cycle thinking for the mining sector in the Philippines in enhancing the interventions intended for mining as a catalyst of sustainable development in the country. The environmental ills of mining hinder the sector’s acceptability as a catalyst, which is detrimental to its sustainability at the same time.

Methods

Previous works on mining impacts and life cycle thinking and assessment in the country had been reviewed to glean insights on integrating life cycle thinking in mining. Why and how such thinking and approach should be accounted for in mining is examined from these works to figure out the strategies through which mining is helped in mitigating its environmental ills.

Results and discussion

Life cycle thinking helps establish a logical approach in analysing issues associated with mining processes and products. It is of great relevance in preparing for contingencies for the adverse environmental outcomes that arise at any point of mining’s life cycle (exploration to mine closure) and the mining products’ life cycles (extraction to recycling or to accumulation). With its associated assessment procedures, life cycle thinking provides a logical system in obtaining scientific evidence for forward planning particularly on the aspect of sustainable mitigation of mining’s environmental outcomes.

Conclusions

It is apt that life cycle thinking be seriously accounted for in mining to improve the current undertakings of troubleshooting and addressing the adverse environmental outcomes of mining. Important insights from it facilitate the identification of sustainable mitigation strategies and who could take the lead actions, such as in developing business linkages and new markets to capitalize on the wastes and emissions from mining operations. The insights can greatly help the mining sector build its capability to come in harmony with people and nature, and work as a catalyst of sustainable development in the country.

Keywords

Life cycle assessment Life cycle thinking Mining Philippines Product life cycle Sustainable development 

References

  1. Aviso KB, Tan RR, Culaba AB, Cruz JB Jr (2011) Fuzzy input–output model for optimizing eco-industrial supply chains under water footprint constraints. J Clean Prod 19:187–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Awuah-Offei K, Adekpedjou A (2011) Application of life cycle assessment in the mining industry. Int J Life Cycle Assess 16:82–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ban Toxics! (2010) The price of gold: mercury use and current issues surrounding artisanal and small-scale gold mining in the Philippines. http://bantoxics.org/download/The_Price_of_Gold.pdf. Accessed 10 August 2015
  4. Bauer C, Buchgeister J, Hischier R, Poganietz WR, Schebek L, Warsen J (2007) Towards a framework for life cycle thinking in the assessment of nanotechnology. J Clean Prod 16:910–926CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bermejo R (2014) Circular economy: materials scarcity, European Union policy and foundations of a circular economy. Handbook for a sustainable economy. Springer, Dordrecht. doi: 10.1007/978-94-017-8981-3 Google Scholar
  6. Bersales LG (2015) Performance of the Philippine economy first quarter 2015. www.nscb.gov.ph/sna/2015/tables/Q1_2015_NAP_long_version.pdf
  7. Cabaraban MTI, Khire MV, Alocilja EC (2008) Aerobic in-vessel composting versus bioreactor landfilling using life cycle inventory models. Clean Technol Envir 10:39–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chamber of Mines of the Philippines (2011) We have responsible mining now! www.chamberofmines.com.ph/download/advertisement/12092011.jpg
  9. Chamber of Mines of the Philippines (2012) Responsible mining boosts the economy. www.chamberofmines.com.ph/download/advertisement/02132012.jpg
  10. CIRAIG (2015) Circular economy: a critical literature review of concepts. http://www.ciraig.org/pdf/CIRAIG_Circular_Economy_Literature_Review_Oct2015.pdf
  11. Corder G, Golev A, Giurco D (2015) “Wealth from metal wastes”: translating global knowledge on industrial ecology to metals recycling in Australia. Miner Eng 76:2–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cordillera Peoples Alliance (2007) Case study on the impacts of mining and dams on the environment and indigenous peoples in Benguet, Cordillera, Philippines. www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/documents/workshop_IPPE_cpp.doc
  13. Corporate Watch (2010) The matrix of the Philippine mining industry. https://corporatewatch.org/news/2010/nov/09/matrix-philippine-mining-industry
  14. CorpWatch (2007) Barrick’s dirty secrets: communities worldwide respond to gold mining’s impacts. www.s3.amazonaws.com/corpwatch.org/downloads/Barrick_final_sml.pdf
  15. Cortez MAA (2011) Resource productivity of Japanese manufacturing subsidiaries in the Philippines: a comparative study. DLSUBER 20(2):15–28Google Scholar
  16. Culaba AB, Purvis MRI (1999) A methodology for the life cycle and sustainability analysis of manufacturing processes. J Clean Prod 7:435–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Doyle C, Wicks C, Nally F (2007) Mining in the Philippines. Fact Finding Mission to the Philippines Report. www.eccr.org.uk/dcs/MininginthePhilippines-ConcernsandConflicts.pdf
  18. Durucan S, Korre A, Munoz-Melendez G (2006) Mining life cycle modelling: a cradle-to-gate approach to environmental management in the minerals industry. J Clean Prod 14:1057–1070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ellen MacArthur Foundation (2015) Circular economy. www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/circular-economy
  20. Emas R (2015) The concept of sustainable development: definition and defining principles. Brief for GSDR 2015. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/5839GSDR2015_SD_concept_definition_rev.pdf
  21. Finkbeiner M, Schau EM, Lehmann A, Traverso M (2010) Towards life cycle sustainability assessment. Sustainability 2:3309–3322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Great Mining (2016) Surface mining. www.greatmining.com/Surface-Mining.html
  23. Heiskanen E (2002) The institutional logic of life cycle thinking. J Clean Prod 10:427–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hicks RM, Acosta NO, Candelaria SM (2013) Crafting a sustainable mining policy in the Philippines. NR&E 27(3):1–4Google Scholar
  25. Holden WN, Jacobson RD (2006) Mining amid decentralization. Local governments and mining in the Philippines. Nat Res Forum 30:188–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hudtohan E (2015) Socio-economic-political impact of mining in the Philippines. https://www.emilianohudtohan.com/socio-economic-political-impact-of-mining-in-the-Philippines/
  27. Ingwersen WW (2011) Emergy as a life cycle impact assessment indicator-a gold mining case study. J Ind Ecol 15(4):550–567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Israel DC, Asirot JP (2002) Mercury pollution due to small-scale gold mining in the Philippines: an economic analysis, Research paper series No. 2002–02. Philippine Institute for Development Studies, Makati CityGoogle Scholar
  29. Joint Foreign Chambers of the Philippines (2009) Arangkada Philippines 2010: A business perspective. Advocacy Paper. www.investphilippines.info/arangkada/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/16-Part-3-Seven-Big-Winner-Sectors-Mining.pdf
  30. Lesage P, Reid C, Margni M, Aubertin M, Deschênes L (2008) Use of LCA in the mining industry and research challenges. www.polymtl.ca/enviro-geremi/pdf/articles/G3-P_Lesage-paper(II).pdf
  31. Lindon JG, Canare TA, Mendoza RU (2014) Corporate and public governance in mining: lessons from the marcopper mine disaster in Marinduque, Philippines. Asian J Bus Ethics 3:171–193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Magno C (2015) The mining development framework for the Philippines. Discussion Paper No. 2015–12. www.econ.upd.edu.ph/dp/index.php/dp/article/viewFile/1482/964
  33. Mascle C, Zhao HP (2008) Integrating environmental consciousness in product/process development based on life cycle thinking. Int J Prod Econ 112:5–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. McConville JR, Mihelcic JR (2007) Adapting life-cycle thinking tools to evaluate project sustainability in international water and sanitation development work. Environ Eng Sci 24(7):937–948CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. MGB-Region XI (2016) Annual SDMP accomplishment 2011–2015. https://www.mgbxi.org/mesd-sdmp/
  36. Mӧller C (2011) Empowerment strategies for environmental sustainability: proposal of concepts to master social and environmental impacts of the large-scale gold and copper mining project in Didipio, Philippines. https://opus4.kobv.de/opus4-btu/frontdoor/index/index/docId/2983
  37. Mont O, Bleischwitz R (2007) Sustainable consumption and resource management in the light of life cycle thinking. Eur Environ 17:59–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mudd GM (2013) Australia’s mining legacies. Arena Magazine No. 124:19–24. http://search.informit.com.au.ezproxy.library.uq.edu.au/documentSummary;dn=411567625165997;res=IELHSS
  39. Nooten GA (2007) Sustainable development and non-renewable resources-a multilateral perspective. www.pubs.usgs.gov/circ/2007/1294/reports/paper6.pdf
  40. Pekala LM, Tan RR, Foo DCY, Jezowski JM (2010) Optimal energy planning models with carbon footprint constraints. Appl Energy 87:1903–1910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Philex Mining Corporation (2012) Valuenation annual report 2012. www.philexmining.com.ph/userfiles/file/PMC Annual Report 2012.pdf
  42. Philippine Senate Economic Planning Office (2013) Realizing the Philippines’ mining potential. https://www.senate.gov.ph/publications/PB2013-12-Mining_PolicyBrief_final_revised_010614.pdf
  43. Ramani RV (2012) Surface mining technology: progress and prospects. Procedia Engineering 46:9–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Sagittarius Mines Inc. (2011) Tampakan copper-gold project: benefits for the community. www.smi.com.ph/EN/EnvironmentalImpactAssesment/Englishfactsheets/Xstrata Tampakan CommunityBenefits Factsheets_WEB_V5.pdf
  45. Sahakian MD (2010) Combining life cycle thinking with social theory: case study of compact fluorescent lamps (CFL) in the Philippines. Sustainability 2:2349–2364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Soriano V (2013) Blending the green in gold: towards a sustainable small scale gold production systems. Asia Pacific Industrial Engineering and Management System. www.apiems.org/conf2013/conf2013/4025.pdf
  47. Soriano V (2012) A simplified sustainable manufacturing paradigm for small scale gold production systems. www.seed-net.org/download/3.A_SIMPLIFIED_SUSTAINABLE_MANUFACTURING_PARADIGM_FOR_SMALL_SCALE_GOLD_PRODUCTION_SYSTEMS.pdf
  48. Stark J, Li J, Terasawa K (2006) Environmental safeguards and community benefits in mining: Recent lessons from the Philippines. Working Paper No. 1. www.fess-global.org/workingpapers/lessons_from_rp.pdf
  49. Suppen N, Carranza M, Huerta M, Hernández (2006) Environmental management and life cycle approaches in the Mexican mining industry. J Clean Prod 14:1101–1115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tan RR, Aviso KB, Barilea IU, Culaba AB, Cruz JB Jr (2012) A fuzzy multi-regional input–output optimization model for biomass production and trade under resource and footprint constraints. Appl Energy 90:154–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tan RR, Culaba AB, Purvis MRI (2004) Carbon balance implications of coconut biodiesel utilization in the Philippine automotive transport sector. Biomass Bioenerg 26:579–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Tan RR, Ballacillo JB, Aviso KB, Culaba AB (2009) A fuzzy multiple-objective approach to the optimization of bioenergy system footprints. Chem Eng Res Des 87:1162–1170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. The Alternate Forum for Research in Mindanao (2012) A background study on the small-scale gold mining operations in Benguet and South Cotabato and their impact on the economy, the environment and the community. www.afrim.org.ph/IDLS/files/original/6cbf6e83cf266ba2d3bb61f29380feeb.pdf
  54. Tjan W, Tan RR, Foo DCY (2010) A graphical representation of carbon footprint reduction for chemical processes. J Clean Prod 18:848–856CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tseng M, Chiu SF, Tan RR, Siriban-Manalang AB (2013) Sustainable consumption and production for Asia: sustainability through green design and practice. J Clean Prod 40:1–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. UNEP (2000) Mining and sustainable development II challenges and perspectives. Industry and Environment, United nations Environment Programme Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (UNEP DTIE), ParisGoogle Scholar
  57. UN General Assembly (2015) Transforming our world: The 2030 agenda for sustainable development. www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/70/1&Lang=E
  58. USGS (2015) Major countries in worldwide nickel mine production from 2010 to 2014 (in metric tons). www.statista.com/statistics/264642/nickel-mine-production-by-country/
  59. van Beers D, Corder G, Bossilkov A, van Berkel R (2007) Industrial symbiosis in the Australian minerals industry. J Ind Ecol 11(1):55–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Winfield M, Coumans C, Kuyek JN, Meloche F, Taylor A (2002) Looking beneath the surface: an assessment of the value of public support for the metal mining industry in Canada. https://www.pembina.org/reports/belowthesurface_en.pdf
  61. World Gold Council (2015) The world’s biggest gold mining countries-gold facts. www.goldfacts.org/en/economic_impact/countries
  62. Yumul GP, Cruz NA, Servando NT, Dimalanta CB (2011) Extreme weather events and related disasters in the Philippines, 2004–08: a sign of what climate change will mean? Disasters 35(2):362–382CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Zhijun F, Nailing Y (2007) Putting circular economy into practice in China. Sustain Sci 2:95–101CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Geography, Planning and Environmental ManagementUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.College of Agricultural Sciences and Natural ResourcesCaraga State UniversityButuan CityPhilippines

Personalised recommendations