A comparative life cycle assessment of the sugarcane value chain in the province of Tucumán (Argentina) considering different technology levels



The purpose of this work is to quantify the environmental impact of the sugarcane industry in Tucumán (Argentina) through the life cycle analysis (LCA). The distinctive feature is the consideration of different technology levels (TLs) in the agricultural stage: high (HTL), medium (MTL), and low (LTL).


The scope of the study covers the agricultural and industrial stages through a “from cradle to gate” approach (from sugarcane cultivation until production of finished products: sugar and alcohol). The system is divided into Agriculture, Sugar Factory, and Distillery. Data used for the inventory are mainly provided by local experts, sugarcane growers, and processing companies. The characteristics of each TL are taken from a regional classification. For the impact assessment, the CML 2001 model (nine impact categories) is used.

Results and discussion

Regardless of the TL, in most of the impact categories, an important contribution attributable to the use of synthetic agrochemicals is evident. As for the comparison among TLs, the ethanol produced with HTL has less impact values than the ones produced with MTL and LTL in seven categories. These results can be mainly explained by the better cultural yields obtained with HTL, and to the fact that sugarcane is not burnt before harvesting in HTL as it is in MTL and LTL.


This study explores the implications of using different TLs for the agricultural tasks on the sugarcane supply chain in Tucumán, which is characterized by a vertically nonintegrated productive scheme. If practices associated to HTL are implemented, a reduction of the environmental impact is observed in most categories. It is necessary to compare these results with economic and social implications to ensure sustainability of the sugarcane value chain.

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The authors wish to acknowledge financial support from the Universidad Nacional de Tucumán, the Argentine CONICET (PIP 112-201101-00785 project), and INTA (PNIND-1108074 project).

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Correspondence to Fernando Daniel Mele.

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Responsible editor: Ian Vázquez-Rowe

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Nishihara Hun, A.L., Mele, F.D. & Pérez, G.A. A comparative life cycle assessment of the sugarcane value chain in the province of Tucumán (Argentina) considering different technology levels. Int J Life Cycle Assess 22, 502–515 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11367-016-1047-3

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  • Bioethanol
  • Biofuels
  • Biorefinery
  • Environmental profile
  • Sugar
  • Sustainability