Carbon footprint of pomegranate (Punica granatum) cultivation in a hyper-arid region in coastal Peru



The cultivation of pomegranate worldwide has increased sharply in the past few years, mainly due to the growing perception that this fruit has numerous medical benefits. Despite the proliferation of studies delving into the properties of pomegranate from a medical and dietary perspective, its analysis from an environmental perspective has yet to be carried out in depth. Hence, the present study aims at understanding the life cycle environmental impacts in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions derived from the cultivation, processing and distribution abroad of fresh pomegranate grown at an innovative farm in a hyper-arid area in the region of Ica (Peru).


The international standards for life cycle methodologies were considered in order to obtain the overall carbon footprint (CFP) of fresh pomegranate cultivation, processing and distribution. Data acquisition was performed at the cultivation site and supported by the ecoinvent® database, whereas GHG emissions were modelled using the IPCC 2007 method. In addition, biogenic carbon sequestration was included in the assessment, using two distinct models, a first one to model the aerial carbon sequestered by the pomegranate trees and a second, using the IPCC Soil Carbon Tool for soil storage.

Results and discussion

Annual results show that on-site GHG emissions can be mitigated to a great extent in the first years of production thanks to biogenic carbon sequestration. However, through time, this tendency is reverted, and in years of maximum pomegranate productivity, GHG emissions are estimated to outweigh those linked to sequestration, despite the relevant minimization of emissions when using innovative irrigation schemes as compared to the conventional flood irrigation in the region.


Despite the threat in terms of water depletion and security, the expansion of Peru’s agricultural frontier in hyper-arid areas appears to be a feasible strategy for carbon fixation, although current agricultural practices, such as the use of machinery or electricity, need to be optimized to make positive the carbon balance.

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The authors would like to thank Minela Chávarri and Juan Pablo Bentín for valuable scientific exchange, as well as SwissContact for valuable scientific support. In addition, the authors express their gratitude to the reviewers for their thoughtful and valuable comments. Authors with affiliation to the University of Santiago de Compostela (Spain) belong to the Galician Competitive Research Group GRC 2013-032. Dr. Ian Vázquez-Rowe wishes to thank the Galician Government for financial support (I2C Postdoctoral Student Grants Programme).

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Vázquez-Rowe, I., Kahhat, R., Santillán-Saldívar, J. et al. Carbon footprint of pomegranate (Punica granatum) cultivation in a hyper-arid region in coastal Peru. Int J Life Cycle Assess 22, 601–617 (2017).

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  • Carbon footprint
  • GHG emissions
  • Horticultural products
  • Land use changes
  • Life cycle assessment
  • Pomegranate