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Table 3 LCIA results per ton of mozzarella cheese consumed (dry solids basis) from the cradle-to-grave

From: Life cycle assessment of cheese and whey production in the USA

Impact category Unit Feed production Farm Raw milk transport Manufacturing Packaging Distribution Retail Consumption Total
Climate change kg CO2e 2.90E + 03 6.20E + 03 1.50E + 02 2.02E + 03 2.09E + 02 4.73E + 02 1.24E + 03 1.03E + 03 1.42E + 04
Cumulative energy demand MJ 2.72E + 04 6.95E + 03 2.14E + 03 2.05E + 04 3.04E + 03 6.77E + 03 9.19E + 03 1.24E + 04 8.83E + 04
Freshwater depletion m3 1.17E + 03 5.49E + 01 1.27E − 01 1.01E + 02 2.63E + 00 4.01E − 01 2.13E + 00 5.81E + 00 1.33E + 03
Marine eutrophication kg N eq. 1.95E + 01 3.19E + 00 5.54E − 02 1.44E + 01 1.73E − 01 1.75E − 01 1.41E − 01 3.04E − 01 3.80E + 01
Photochemical oxidant formation kg NMVOC 2.06E + 01 1.12E + 01 1.57E + 00 6.08E + 00 7.54E − 01 4.97E + 00 1.85E + 00 2.66E + 00 4.97E + 01
Freshwater eutrophication kg P eq. 5.81E + 00 1.28E − 02 1.48E − 03 1.36E + 00 5.33E − 02 4.69E − 03 3.72E − 01 4.37E − 01 8.05E + 00
Ecosystems Species/year 2.33E − 04 5.27E − 05 1.19E − 06 3.43E − 05 9.23E − 06 3.78E − 06 9.99E − 06 1.47E − 05 3.59E − 04
Human toxicity CTUh 6.25E − 05 3.48E − 05 3.73E − 06 2.27E − 04 4.60E − 05 1.18E − 05 1.25E − 04 1.54E − 04 6.65E − 04
Ecotoxicity CTUe 1.24E + 04 5.10E + 04 3.05E + 01 4.63E + 03 3.54E + 02 9.64E + 01 6.54E + 02 7.77E + 02 6.99E + 04