This article takes a thematic approach to review the existing literature (in both Chinese and English) of environmental politics in the broad context of China studies. Examined themes include state and environmental governance, public awareness and environmental social activism, and environmental foreign relations. Findings and arguments are assessed with two important questions in mind: What differentiates the environmental arena from Chinese politics in general? What new insights into Chinese politics can be gained from case studies of environmental protection? Scholarship on environmental politics contributes not only empirical findings, but also critical challenges to the conventional knowledge and frameworks of Chinese politics.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
The statistics do not include articles that deal with environmental politics exclusively in Hong Kong or Taiwan.
“Ministry will give more weight to green issues,” China Daily, 13 March 2008.
Official statement at http://www.cciced.org. Accessed 10 March 2009.
The LEAD (Leadership for Environment and Development) program funded by the Rockefeller Foundation in the early 1990s.
Official website http://www.chinaceap.org. Accessed 10 March 2009.
A Survey of Literature on Environmental Politics in China In English
Aden, N.T. and J.E. Sinton. 2006. Environmental implications of energy policy in China. Environmental Politics 15(2): 248–270.
Alford, W.P. and Y. Shen. 1998. The limits of the law in addressing China’s environmental dilemma. In Energizing China: Reconciling environmental protection and economic growth, ed. M.B. McElroy, et al., 405–430. Cambridge: Harvard University Committee on the Environment.
Alford, W.P., R.P. Weller, et al. 2002. The human dimensions of pollution policy implementation: Air quality in rural China. Journal of Contemporary China 11(32): 495–513.
Ash, R. and R. Edmonds. 1998. China’s land resources, environment and agricultural production. China Quarterly 156: 836–879.
Baldinger, P., and J. L. Turner. 2002. Crouching suspicions, hidden potential: U.S. environmental and energy cooperation with China. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars—China Environment Forum.
Banister, J. 1998. Population, public health and the environment in China. China Quarterly 156: 986–1015.
Bank, A.D. 2000. Reform of environmental and land legislation in the People’s Republic of China. Manilla: Asia Development Band.
Banks, T. 2003. Property rights reform in rangeland China: Dilemmas on the road to the household ranch. World Development 31(12): 2129–2142.
Barber, C.V., J. Boutwell, et al. 1997. The findings of the environmental scarcities, state capacity and civil violence project: China, Indonesia and India. Washington DC: Woodrow Wilson Center, ECSP Project.
Beach, M. 2001. Local environmental management in China. China Environmental Series 4: 21–31.
Blaikie, P.M. and J.S. Muldavin. 2004. Upstream, downstream, China, India: The politics of environment in the Himalayan region. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 94(3): 520–548.
Brettell, A. 2000. Environmental NGOs in the People’s Republic of China: Innocents in a co–opted environmental movement? Journal of Pacific Asia 6: 27–56.
Brettell, A. 2001. Environmental disputes and public service law: Past and present. China Environment Series 4: 66–68.
Brettell, A. 2003. The politics of public participation and the emergence of environmental protomovements in China. University of Maryland. Ph.D. dissertation.
Buesgen, M. 2008. Environmental NGOs’ role in expanding social spaces—diversification with Chinese characteristics: a case study of ENGOs; opposition to the Nujiang dam in China’s Yunnan Province. China Journal of Social Work 1(2): 160–171.
Cai, S. and M. Voigts. 1993. The development of China’s environmental diplomacy. Pacific Rim Law and Policy Journal 3: 17–42.
Carter, N.T. and A.P.J. Mol. 2006. China and the environment: domestic and transnational dynamics of a future hegemon. Environmental Politics 15(2): 330–344.
Carter, N.T. and A.P.J. Mol (eds). 2007. Environmental Governance in China. London: Routledge.
Chan, G. 2004. China’s Compliance in global environmental affairs. Asia Pacific Viewpoint 45(1): 69–86.
Chan, G., P.K. Lee, et al. 2008. China’s environmental governance: The domestic—international nexus. Third World Quarterly 29(2): 291–314.
Chayes, A. and C.J. Kim. 1998. China and the United Nations framework convention on climate change. In Energizing China, ed. M.B. McElroy, et al., 503–540. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Chen, S. and J.I. Uitto. 2003. Governing marine and coastal environment in China: Building local government capacity through international cooperation. China Environment Series 6: 67–80.
Choi, Y.H. 2002. Cooperative environmental efforts in northeast Asia: Assessment and recommendations. International Review for Environmental Strategies 3(1): 137–151.
Coggins, C. 2003. The tiger and the pangolin: Nature, culture, and conservation in China. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press.
Cooper, C.M. 2006. “This is our way in”: The civil society of environmental NGOs in South–West China. Government & Opposition 41(1): 109–136.
Dai, Q. and E.B. Vermeer. 1999. Do good work, but do not offend the “old communists”: Recent activities of China’s non-governmental environmental protection organizations and individuals. In China’s economic security, ed. W. Draguhn and R. Ash, 142–162. Surrey: Curzon.
Dasgupta, S. and D. Wheeler. 1996. “Citizens” complaints as environmental indicators: Evidence from China. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Day, K. 2005. China’s environment and the challenge of sustainable development. Armonk: M. E. Sharpe.
Dickinson, D. and M. Webber. 2007. Environmental resettlement and development, on the steppes of Inner Mongolia, PRC. Journal of Development Studies 43(3): 537–561.
Dosch, J. and O. Hensengerth. 2005. Sub-regional cooperation in Southeast Asia: The Mekong Basin. European Journal of East Asian Studies 4(2): 263–285.
Economy, E. 1994. Negotiating the terrain of global climate change policy in the Soviet Union and China: Linking international and domestic decision-making pathways. University of Michigan. Ph.D. dissertation.
Economy, E. 1997. Chinese policy-making and global climate change: Two–front diplomacy and the international community. In The internationalization of environmental protection, ed. M. Schreurs and E. Economy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Economy, E. 1998. China’s environmental diplomacy. In China and the world, ed. S.S. Kim, 264–286. Boulder: Westview.
Economy, E. 2002. China’s “Go West” campaign: Ecological construction or ecological exploitation? China Environmental 5: 1–12.
Economy, E. 2004. The river runs black: The environmental challenge to China’s future. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Economy, E. 2006. Environmental governance: The emerging economic dimension. Environmental Politics 15(2): 171–189.
Economy, E. 2007. The great leap backward? Foreign Affairs 86(5): 38–59.
Economy, E., J.L. Turner, and F. Wu. 2008. China’s growing ecological footprint. In The United States, Russia, and China: Confronting global terrorism and security challenges in the 21st century, ed. P.J. Bolt, et al. Westport: Praeger Security International.
Edmonds, R.L. 1994. Patterns of China’s lost harmony: A survey of the country’s environmental degradation and protection. London: Routledge.
Edmonds, R.L. (ed). 1998. Managing China’s environment. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Edmonds, R.L. 1998. Studies on China’s environment. China Quarterly 156: 725–732.
Edmonds, R.L. 1999. The environment in the People’s Republic of China 50 years on. China Quarterly 159: 640–649.
Ellis, L.J. and J.L. Turner. 2008. Sowing the seeds: Opportunities for U.S.-China cooperation on food safety. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.
Falkner, R. 2006. International sources of environmental policy change in China: The case of genetically modified food. Pacific Review 19(4): 473–494.
Foster, G.D. 2000. China’s environmental threat: Crafting a strategic response. Comparative Strategy 19(2): 123–143.
Gallagher, K.S. 2004. Greening Chinese business: Barriers, trends and opportunities for environmental management. Ecological Economics 49(3): 412–413.
Gallagher, K.S. 2006. China shifts gears: Automakers, oil, pollution, and development. Cambridge: MIT.
Glacy, L. 2002. China’s nature reserves: Protecting species or generating profits? China Environment Series 5: 69–73.
Gupta, A. and R. Falkner. 2006. The influence of the Cartagena Protocol on biosafety: Comparing Mexico, China and South Africa. Global Environmental Politics 6(4): 23–55.
Hamburger, J. 2003. Pesticides in China: A growing threat to food safety, public health, and the environment. China Environment Series 5: 29–44.
Han, S. and L. Zhang. 2006. China’s environmental governance of rapid industrialization. Environmental Politics 15(2): 271–292.
Harkness, J. 1998. Recent trends in forestry and conservation of biodiversity in China. China Quarterly 156: 911–934.
Hayes, J.P. 2007. The recent environmental history of Tiger Leaping Gorge: Environmental degradation and local land development in northern Yunnan. Journal of Contemporary China 16(52): 499–516.
He, D., et al. 2006. Transboundary hydrological effects of hydropower dam construction on the Lancang River. Chinese Science Bulletin 51: 16–24.
Heggelund, G. 1993. China’s environmental crisis: The battle of Sanxia. Oslo: Norwegian Institute of International Affairs.
Heggelund, G. 2004. Environment and resettlement politics in China: The Three Gorges Project. Aldershot: Ashgate.
Heggelund, G. 2006. Resettlement programmes and environmental capacity in the Three Gorges Dam Project. Development & Change 37(1): 179–199.
Hirono, R. 2007. Japan’s environmental cooperation with China during the last two decades. Asia–Pacific Review 14(2): 1–16.
Ho, P. 2000. China’s rangelands under stress: A comparative study of pasture commons in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. Development & Change 31(2): 385–411.
Ho, P. 2000. The myth of desertification at China’s northwestern frontier. Modern China 26(3): 348–395.
Ho, P. 2001. Greening without conflict? Environmentalism, NGOs, and civil society in China. Development & Change 32(5): 893–921.
Ho, P. 2001. Rangeland degradation in north China Revisited? A preliminary statistical analysis to validate non-equilibrium range ecology. Journal of Development Studies 37(3): 99–133.
Ho, P. 2003. Mao’s war against nature? The environmental impact of the grain-first campaign in China. China Journal 50: 37–59.
Ho, P. 2004. The wasteland auction policy in northwest China: Solving environmental degradation and rural poverty. In Rural development in transitional China: The new agriculture, ed. P. Ho, et al., 121–159. London: Frank Cass.
Ho, P. and R.L. Edmonds. 2007. Perspectives of time and change: Rethinking embedded environmental activism in China. China Information 21(2): 331–344.
Ho, P. and R.L. Edmonds. 2008. China’s embedded activism: Opportunities and constraints of a social movement. London: Routledge.
Ho, P., and E. B. Vermeer, eds. 2006. China’s limits to growth: Greening state and society. Development & Change 37 (1). Special Issue.
Ho, P., et al. 2006. Biotechnology and food safety in China: Consumers’ acceptance or resistance? Development & Change 37(1): 277–254.
Hopkinson, L. and R. Stern. 2003. One country, two systems, one smog: Cross–boundary air pollution policy challenges for Hong Kong and Guangdong. China Environmental Series 6: 19–36.
Hua, J., Q. Sun, et al. 2000. Reliance on public participation to protect the marine environment in China. In Preservation and protection of the marine environment, ed. C.M. Hawksley and C. Baldwin. Wollongong: University of Wollongong.
Huan, Q. 2007. Ecological modernization: A realistic green road for China? Environmental Politics 16(4): 683–687.
Hyde, W. (ed). 2003. China’s forests: Global lessons from market reforms. Washington, DC: Resources for the Future.
Hyun, I. and M.A. Schreurs (eds). 2007. The environmental dimension of Asian security: Conflict and cooperation over energy, resources, and pollution. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace Press.
Jahiel, A. 1995. The Chinese reforms and the rationalization of environmental dispute resolution. Bulletin of Science Technology Society 15: 215–223.
Jahiel, A. 1997. The contradictory impact of reform on environmental protection in China. China Quarterly 149: 81–103.
Jahiel, A. 1998. The organization of environmental protection in China. China Quarterly 156: 757–787.
Jahiel, A. 2006. China, the WTO, and implications for the environment. Environmental Politics 15(2): 310–329.
Jeon, H. and S. Yoon. 2006. From international linkages to international divisions in China: Political response to climate change negotiations. Asian Survey 46(6): 846–866.
Jiang, H. 2006. Decentralization, ecological construction, and the environment in post–reform China: Case study from Uxin Banner, Inner Mongolia. World Development 34(11): 1907–1921.
Jing, J. 2000. Environmental protests in rural China. In Chinese Society: Change, Conflict and Resistance, ed. E. Perry and M. Selden, 143–160. New York: Routledge.
Johnston, A.I. 1998. China and international environmental institutions: A decision rule analysis. In Energizing China, ed. M.B. McElroy, et al., 555–600. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Keeley, J. 2006. Balancing technological innovation and environmental regulation: An analysis of Chinese agricultural biotechnology governance. Environmental Politics 15(2): 293–309.
Khagram, S. 2004. Dams and development: Transnational struggles for water and power. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Knup, E. 1997. Environmental NGOs in China: An overview. China Environment Series 1: 9–15.
Koehn, P.H. 2004. Sustainable development frontiers and divides: Transnational actors and US/China greenhouse gas emissions. International Journal for Sustainable Development & World Ecology 11(4): 380–396.
Lang, G. and C. Wan. 2006. China’s impact on forests in Southeast Asia. Journal of Contemporary Asia 36(2): 167–194.
Lee, S. 2006. Water and development in China: The political economy of Shanghai water policy. Hackensack: World Scientific.
Lee, Y.-S. 2002. Tackling cross–border environmental problems in Hong Kong: Initial responses and institutional constraints. China Quarterly 172: 986–1009.
Lee, Y.-S. 2005. Public environmental consciousness in China: Early empirical evidence. In China’s environment and the challenge of sustainable development, ed. K.A. Day, 35–65. Armonk: M. E. Sharpe.
Lee, Y.-S. and A.Y. So (eds). 1999. Asia’s environmental movements: Comparative perspectives. Armonk: M. E. Sharpe.
Lieberthal, K. 1997. China’s governing system and its impact on environmental policy implementation. China Environmental Series 1: 3–8.
Litzinger, R. 2004. The mobilization of ‘nature’: Perspectives from North–West Yunnan. China Quarterly 178: 488–504.
Liu, C. 1998. Environmental issues and the south–north water transfer scheme. China Quarterly 156: 899–910.
Liu, J. and J. Diamond. 2005. China’s environment in a globalizing world. Nature 435(7046): 1179–1186.
Lo, C.W. and S.W. Leung. 2000. Environmental agency and public opinion in Guangzhou: The limits of a popular approach to environmental governance. China Quarterly 163: 677–704.
Lo, C.W. and G.E. Fryxell. 2005. Governmental and societal support for environmental enforcement in China: An empirical study in Guangzhou. Journal of Development Studies 41(4): 558–588.
Lo, C.W., et al. 2006. Effective regulations with little effect? The antecedents of the perceptions of environmental officials on enforcement effectiveness in China. Environmental Management 38(3): 388–410.
Lo, C.W. and S. Tang. 2006. Institutional reform, economic changes, and local environmental management in China: The case of Guangdong province. Environmental Politics 15(2): 190–210.
Lothspeich, R. and A. Chen. 1997. Environmental protection in the People’s Republic of China. Journal of Contemporary China 6(14): 33–59.
Lu, H. 2003. Bamboo sprouts after the rain: The history of university student environmental associations in China. China Environment Series 6: 55–66.
Lu, Y. 2007. Environmental civil society and governance in China. International Journal of Environmental Studies 64(1): 59–69.
Ma, L.J., A. Noble, et al. 1981. The environment: Chinese and American views. New York: Ohio Academy of Science.
Ma, X. and L. Ortolano. 2000. Environmental regulation in China: Institutions, enforcement, and compliance. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.
Magee, D. 2006. Powershed politics: Yunnan hydropower under Great Western Development. China Quarterly 185: 23–41.
Martens, S. 2006. Public participation with Chinese characteristics: Citizen consumers in China’s environmental management. Environmental Politics 15(2): 211–230.
McBeath, G.A. and T. Leng. 2006. Governance of biodiversity conservation in China and Taiwan. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
McElroy, M.B., C.P. Nielsen, et al. (eds). 1998. Energizing China: Reconciling environmental protection and economic growth. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Mead, R.W. and V. Brajer. 2006. Rise of the automobiles: The costs of increased NO 2 pollution in China’s changing urban environment. Journal of Contemporary China 15(47): 349–367.
Mead, R.W. and V. Brajer. 2008. Environmental cleanup and health gains from Beijing’s green Olympics. China Quarterly 194: 275–293.
Menniken, T. 2007. China’s performance in international resource politics: Lessons from the Mekong. Contemporary Southeast Asia: A Journal of International & Strategic Affairs 29(1): 97–120.
Mertha, A.C. 2008. China’s water warriors: Citizen action and policy change. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Mertha, A.C. and W.R. Lowry. 2006. Unbuilt dams. Comparative Politics 39(1): 1–20.
Mills, M.A., T. Huber, et al. 1998. Ecological knowledge in Tibet. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 4(4): 783.
Mol, A.P.J. 2006. Environment and modernity in transitional China: Frontiers of ecological modernization. Development & Change 37(1): 29–56.
Mol, A.P.J. and J.C.L. van Buuren. 2003. Greening industrialization in Asian transitional economies: China and Vietnam. Lanham: Lexington Books.
Mol, A.P.J. and N.T. Carter. 2006. China’s environmental governance in transition. Environmental Politics 15(2): 149–170.
Morton, K. 2005. The emergence of NGOs in China and their transnational linkages: Implications for domestic reform. Australian Journal of International Affairs 59(4): 519–532.
Morton, K. 2005. International aid and China’s environment: Taming the yellow dragon. New York: Routledge.
Myungjin, K. 2004. Environmental cooperation in Northeast Asia. Impact Assessment & Project Appraisal 22(3): 191.
Nickum, J. 1981. Water management organization in the People’s Republic of China. Armonk: M. E. Sharpe.
Nickum, J. 1998. Is China living on the water margin? China Quarterly 156: 880–898.
Nickum, J.E. and Y. Lee. 2006. Same longitude, different latitudes: Institutional change in urban water in China, North and South. Environmental Politics 15(2): 231–247.
Oehlers, A. 2006. A critique of ADB policies towards the greater Mekong sub–region. Journal of Contemporary Asia 36(4): 464–478.
Oksenberg, M. and E. Economy. 1998. China: Implementation under economic growth and market reform. In Engaging countries: strengthening compliance with international environmental accords, ed. E.B. Weiss and H. Jacobson, 353–394. Cambridge: MIT.
Palmer, M. 1998. Environmental regulation in the People’s Republic of China: The face of domestic law. China Quarterly 156: 788–808.
Pellow, D.N. 2007. Resisting global toxics: Transnational movements for environmental justice. Cambridge: MIT.
Pharr, S.J. and M. Wan. 1998. Yen for the earth: Japan’s pro–active China environment policy. In Energizing China, ed. M.B. McElroy, et al., 601–638. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Pichu, X. and B. Tilt. 2007. Industry, pollution and environmental enforcement in rural China: Implications for sustainable development. Urban Anthropology & Studies of Cultural Systems & World Economic Development 36(1/2): 115–143.
Pritchard, G.I. 1980. Fisheries and aquaculture in the People’s Republic of China. Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.
Qu, G. and J. Li. 1994. Population and the environment in China. Boulder: Lynn Rienner.
Richardson, S.D. 1966. Forestry in Communist China. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Richardson, S.D. 1990. Forests and forestry in China: Changing patterns of resource development. Washington, DC: Island.
Robinson, T.W. 1992. The foreign relations of China’s environmental policy. Washington, DC: American Enterprise Institute.
Ross, L. 1987. Environmental policy in post–Mao China. Environmental Politics 29(4): 12–23.
Ross, L. 1988. Environmental policy in China. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
Ross, L. 1992. The politics of environmental policy in the People’s Republic of China. Journal of Policy Studies 20(4): 628–642.
Ross, L. 1998. China: Environmental protection, domestic policy trends, patterns of participation in regimes. China Quarterly 156: 809–836.
Ross, L. 1999. China and environmental Protection. In China joins the world, ed. E. Economy and M. Oksenberg, 296–325. New York: Council on Foreign Relations Press.
Ross, L. and M.A. Silk. 1987. Environmental law and policy in the People’s Republic of China. New York: Quorum Books.
Ru, J. 2004. Environmental NGOs in China: The interplay of state controls, agency interests and NGO strategies. Stanford University. Ph.D. dissertation.
Saich, T. 2000. Negotiating the state: The development of social organizations in China. China Quarterly 161: 125–141.
Sanders, R. 2000. Political economy of Chinese ecological agriculture: A case study of seven Chinese eco–villages. Journal of Contemporary China 9(25): 349–372.
Sanders, R. 2000. The political economy of Chinese environmental protection: Lessons of the Mao and Deng years. Third World Quarterly 20(6): 1201–1214.
Sanders, R. 2006. A market road to sustainable agriculture? Ecological agriculture, green food and organic agriculture in China. Development & Change 37(1): 201–226.
Sanders, R. 2006. Organic agriculture in China: Do property rights matter? Journal of Contemporary China 15(46): 113–132.
Schwartz, J. 2004. Environmental NGOs in China: Roles and limits. Pacific Affairs 77(1): 28–49.
Shapiro, J. 2001. Mao’s war against nature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Shen, J. 2004. Population growth, ecological degradation and construction in the Western region of China. Journal of Contemporary China 13(41): 637–661.
Shen, Y. and L. Haakon. 2005. Land and water resources management problems in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China. Norwegian Journal of Geography 59(3): 237–245.
Shin, S. 2004. Economic globalization and the environment in China: A comparative case study of Shenyang and Dalian. Journal of Environment & Development 13(3): 263–294.
Sinkule, B.J. and L. Ortolano. 1995. Implementing environmental policy in China. Westport: Praeger.
Smil, V. 1976. China’s energy: Achievements, problems, prospects. New York: Praeger.
Smil, V. 1980. Environmental dagradation in China. Asian Survey 20(6): 777–788.
Smil, V. 1984. The bad earth: Environmental degradation in China. Armonk: M. E. Sharpe.
Smil, V. 1988. Energy in China’s modernization: Advances and limitations. Armonk: M. E. Sharpe.
Smil, V. 1993. China’s environmental crisis: An inquiry into the limits of national development. Armonk: M. E. Sharpe.
Smil, V. 1998. China’s energy and resource uses: Continuity and change. China Quarterly 156: 935–952.
Smil, V. 2004. China’s past, China’s future: Energy, food, environment. New York: Routledge.
Smil, V., J.A. Gladstone, et al. 1992. Environmental change as a source of conflict and economic losses in China. Cambridge: Committee on International Security Studies of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Song, L., W.T. Woo, et al. 2008. China’s dilemma: Economic growth, the environment and climate change. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
Sun, Y. and D. Zhao. 2008. State–society relations and environmental campaigns. In Popular protest in China, ed. K.J. O’Brien, 145–162. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Tan, Y. 2007. Resettlement in the Three Gorges project. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
Tang, S. Y., and C. W.H.Lo, et al. 1997. Institutional constraints on environmental management in urban China. China Quarterly (152): 863–874.
Thompson, D. and X. Lu. 2006. China’s evolving civil society: From environment to health. China Environment Series 8: 27–39.
Tilt, B. 2007. The political ecology of pollution enforcement in China: A Case from Sichuan’s rural industrial sector. China Quarterly 192: 915–932.
Tong, Y. 2007. Bureaucracy meets the environment: Elite perceptions in six Chinese cities. China Quarterly 189: 100–121.
Tuan, Y. 1968. Discrepancies between environmental attitude and behavior: Examples from Europe and China. Canadian Geographer 12(3): 176–191.
Turner, J. L. 2004. Small government, big and green society: Emerging partnership to solve China’s environmental problems. Harvard Asia Quarterly 8 (2).
Turner, J.L. and F. Wu (eds). 2001. Green NGO and environmental journalist forum: A meeting of environmentalists from mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.
Turner, J. L. 1997. Authority flowing downwards? Local government entrepreneurship in the Chinese Water Sector, Indiana University. Ph.D. dissertation.
Turner, J.L. and K. Otsuka (eds). 2006. Reaching across the waters: International cooperation promoting sustainable river basin governance in China. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.
Van Rooij, B. 2006. Implementation of Chinese environmental law: Regular enforcement and political campaigns. Development & Change 37(1): 57–74.
Vermeer, E. 1998. Industrial pollution in China and remedial policies. China Quarterly 156: 952–985.
Wang, A. 2006. The role of law in environmental Protection in China: Recent developments. Vermont Journal of Environmental Law 8: 192–220.
Wang, F. and H. Li. 2005. Environmental implications of China’s energy demands: An overview. In China’s environment and the challenge of sustainable development, ed. K. Day, 180–200. Armonk: M. E. Sharpe.
Wang, H. and B. Liu. 1998. Policymaking for environmental protection in China. In Energizing China, ed. M.B. McElroy, et al., 371–404. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Wang, K. 2001. Bridge over troubled waters: Fisheries cooperation as a resolution to the South China Sea conflicts. Pacific Review 14(4): 531–551.
Warwick, M. and L. Ortolano. 2007. Benefits and costs of Shanghai’s environmental citizen complaints system. China Information 21: 237–264.
Welford, R., P. Hills, et al. 2006. Environmental reform, technology policy and transboundary pollution in Hong Kong. Development & Change 37(1): 145–178.
Weller, R.P. 2006. Discovering nature: Globalization and environmental culture in China and Taiwan. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wen, J.L., S.H. Ali, et al. 2007. Property rights and grassland degradation: A study of the Xilingol Pasture, Inner Mongolia, China. Journal of Environmental Management 85(2): 461–470.
Wittfogel, K.A. 1957. Oriental despotism: A comparative study of total power. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Wong, K. 2003. The environmental awareness of university students in Beijing, China. Journal of Contemporary China 12(36): 519–536.
Wong, K. 2005. Greening of the Chinese mind: Environmentalism with Chinese characteristics. Asia–Pacific Review 12(2): 39–57.
Wong, K. and H.S. Chan. 1996. The environmental awareness of environmental protection bureaucrats in the People’s Republic of China. Environmentalist 16(3): 213–219.
Wu, F. 2002. Old brothers or new partners: GONGOs in transnational environmental advocacy in China. China Environment Series 5: 45–58.
Wu, F. 2003. Environmental GONGO autonomy: Unintended consequences of state strategies in China. Journal of the Good Society 12(1): 35–45.
Wu, F. 2005. Double-mobilization: Transnational advocacy networks for China’s environment and public health, University of Maryland. Ph.D. dissertation.
Yang, G. 2005. Environmental NGOs and institutional dynamics in China. China Quarterly 182: 46–66.
Yang, G. and G. Calhoun. 2007. Media, civil society, and the rise of a green public sphere in China. China Information 21(2): 211–236.
Yu, H. 2004. Global environment regime and climate policy coordination in China. Journal of Chinese Political Science 9(2): 63–77.
Yu, H. 2008. Global warming and China’s environmental diplomacy. New York: Nova Science.
Zeng, K. and J. Eastin. 2007. International economic integration and environmental protection: The case of China. International Studies Quarterly 51(4): 971–995.
Zeng, S.X., C.M. Tam, et al. 2005. Towards implementation of ISO 14001 environmental management systems in selected industries in China. Journal of Cleaner Production 13(7): 645–656.
Zha, D. 2001. Localizing the South China Sea problem: The case of China’s Hainan. Pacific Review 14(4): 575–598.
Zhao, J. 2005. Implementing international environmental treaties in developing countries: China’s compliance with the Montreal Protocol. Global Environmental Politics 5(1): 58–81.
Zhao, J., and L. Ortolano 2003. The Chinese government’s role in implementing multilateral environmental agreements: The case of the Montreal Protocol. China Quarterly (175): 708–725.
Zhu, D. and J. Ru. 2008. Strategic environmental assessment in China: Motivations, politics, and effectiveness. Journal of Environmental Management 88(4): 615–626.
Zusman, E. and J.L. Turner. 2005. Beyond the bureaucracy: Changing China’s policymaking environment. In China’s environment and the challenge of sustainable development, ed. K. Day, 121–149. Armonk: M. E. Sharpe.
Chen, W. 2006. Woguo huanbao NGO fazhan buchongfen de yuanyin fenxi (An analysis of the inadequate development of Chinese environmental NGO). Social Science Forum 12: 55–60.
Cheng, Y. 2008. Gongmin shehui shijiao xiade huanjing zhengzhi canyu (Environmental public participation in the civil society). China Collective Economy 4: 191–192.
Deng, G. 2005. Zhongguo huanbao NGO de liangzhong fazhan moshi (Two developmental models of Chinese environmental NGOs). Xue Hui 3: 4–9.
Ding, J. 2008. Zhongfei huanbao hezuo de xianzhuang yu tedian. (Status quo and featuresof Sino-African cooperation in environmental protection). Asia & Africa Review 4: 10–16.
Ding, M. 2005. Huanjing baohu feizhengfujian guoji zuzhi zai guoji huanjing baohu zhong de zuoyong (The role of nongovernmental organizations in international environmental protection). World Environment 1: 38–42.
Ding, N. and W. Fang. 2005. Zhengfu yu NGO hezuo guanxi de liangweidu fenxi : Yi zhongguo huanjing kexue xuehui yu guojia huanbao zongju de guanxi weili (Two–dimensional analysis of cooperative relations between government and NGO: A case study of the relations between China Environmental Science Society and the State Environmental Protection Administration). Xue Hui 1: 30–34.
Fu, T. 2005. Dangdai zhongguo huanjing NGO tupu (Mapping Chinese environmental NGOs). Nan Feng Chuang 2: 30–32.
Guan, X. 2004. Jiji tansuo linye NGOs de gaige he fazhan (the reformation and development of forestry NGOs). Green China 24: 21–23.
Hao, R. and X. Zheng. 2002. Shilun gongzhong canyu huanjing juece (Preliminary Discussion of public participation in environmental decision–making). Chongqing Environmental Sciences 8: 1–10.
Huan, Q. 2008. “Zengzhang jingji” jiqidui zhongguode shengtai yingxiang: Honglv shegntai shehui zhuyide keneng (“Growth economy” and its ecological impacts upon China: A red–green perspective). Green Leaf 6: 16–23.
Huan, Q. 2008. Huanjing feizhengfu zuzhi yu zhengfu de guanxi: Yi ziranzhiyou weili. (Relations between environmental non-governmental organizations and the government: A case study of the Friend of Nature). Jianghai Academic Journal 2: 130–136.
Huan, Q. and X. Yang. 2004. Gongzhong huanjing zhengzhi canyu: gongmin shehui deshijiao. (Public participation in environmental politics: The perspective of civil society). Issues of Contemporary World Socialism 2: 45–52.
Jiao, X. and J. Ma. 2002. Shilun huanjing baohuzhong gongzhong canyu de yiyi yufangshi (The impact and mechanisms of public participation in environmental protection). China Environmental Management 8: 16–17.
Ma, J. 1999. Zhongguo shui weiji (China’s water crisis). Beijing: China Environmental Science.
Li, E. 2007. Zhenjiufa huanbao NGO canyu huanjing zhengce de zhidu anpai (Needle therapy: Institutional settings for Environmental NGO to participate in environmental policy-making). Journal of Public Management 1: 78–83.
Li, L. 2006. Huanjing baohu lingyuzhong huanjing NGO zuoyong tantao (An approach to understanding the role of environmental NGOs in environment protection). Shanghai Environmental Sciences 3: 120–138.
Li, Y. 2004. Gongzhong canyu huanjing baohu de falv zhidu jianshe–yi feizhengfu zuzhi weizhongxi (Public participation and legal development in environmental protection: Centered around NGOs). Zhejiang Social Sciences 2: 85–90.
Li, Y. 2004. Lun gongzhong canyu huanjing yingxiang pingjiazhongde xinxi gongkai zhidu (On the information disclosure system of the public participation in environmental impact assessment). Jianghai Academic Journal 1: 126–132.
Lin, L. 2004. Dangqian woguo huanjing NGOs defazhan huanjing yanjiu. (Analysis on the development and environment NGOs in China). China’s Environmental Management 4: 9–11.
Liu, X. and B. Ren. 2008. Nujiang jianba juece zhongde gongzhong huanjing zhengzhi canyu gean yanjiu (A case study of environmental political participation in “Nujiang” Dam decision–making). Journal of Beijing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics–Social Sciences Edition 1: 32–35.
Luo, H., W. Zhong, and G. Chai. 2004. Woguo shengtai huanjing zhili zongde feiyingli zuzhi de xingzhi yugongneng (The character and function of China’s nonprofit organizations in ecological environment governance). Journal of Humanities 1: 89–94.
Manion, M. 2008. An introduction to survey research on chinese politics. China Quarterly 196: 755–758.
Shi, Y. 2008. Huanjing baohu gongzhong canyu de xianshi jichu yu zhidu shengcheng yaosu:dui wanshan woguo huanjing baohu gongzhong canyu falv zhidu de sikao. (Reflections on the public participation in environmental protection). Academic Journal of Lanzhou University (Social Sciences) 1: 131–137.
Sun, Z. 2006. Zhongguo huanjing baohu zhongde guoji feizhengfu zuzhi yinsu yanjiu (The role of international NGOs in China’s environmental protection). Dongyue Tribune 6: 40–42.
Tao, C. 2007. Cong huanjing wenti de jiejue zhongkan gongmin shehui de yingyou jiegou (To discuss the structure of civil society from solutions to environmental problems: A study based on analysis of 100 Village Survey data). Academia Biomestric 1: 42–48.
Wang, J. 2007. Huanjing NGO dui gongzhong canyu de cujin xingwei (Discussion on environmental NGO’s contribution to public participation in China). Journal of Environmental Management College of China 17(2): 22–25.
Wang, Y. 2002. Shilun huanjing baohu de gongzhong canyu jizhi (Study of mechanisms of public participation in environmental protection). Environmental Protection 7: 30–32.
Xiao, G. and X. Zhao. 2002. Beijing Huanjing Feizhengfu Zuzhi Yanjiu (Beijing environmental NGOs studies). Beijing: Beijing Publishing House.
Xiao, X. 2003. Shengtai Zhengzhi: Miandui Huanjing Wenti de Guojia Xuanze. (Eco–Politics: State choices facing environmental problems). Taiyuan: Shanxi Science and Technology.
Yang, M. 2002. Huan jing wen ti yu huan jing yi shi (Environment issues: awareness and perceptions). Beijing: Huaxia Publishing House.
Zhang, H. 1998. Zhongguo huanjing waijiao de yanbian (The evolution of China’s environmental diplomacy). World economics and politics 11: 12–15.
Zhang, H. 1998. Lunzhongguo huanjing waijiaode shjian yiqi zuoyong (On the practice and role of Chinese environmental diplomacy). Forum of World Economy and Politics 3: 38–44.
Zhang, H. 2001. Huanjing wenti yu zhongri guanxi (Environmental issues and Sino–Japanese relations). Studies of International Politics 1: 44–55.
Zhang, H. 2006. Zhongguo zaiguoji qihou bianhua tanpanzhong de lichang:lianxuxing yubianhua jiqi yuanyin tanxi (China’s position in the negotiations on international climate change: Continuities and changes). World Economics and Politics 10: 36–43.
Zhang, H. 2007. Zhongguo yuguoji qihou bianhua tanpan (China and the international climate change negotiations). International Politics Quarterly 1: 21–36.
Zhang, H. 2007. Zhongmei yingdui qihou bianhua hezuo: Tiaozhan yu jiyu (Sino–US cooperation to address climate change: Challenges and opportunities). International Economic Review 6: 54–58.
Zhang, H. 2008. Zhongri guanxi zhong de huanjing hezuo: Jianzhenqi haishi yinqin. (Environment cooperation in Sino–Japanese relations: Muffler or engine?). Asia & Africa Review 2: 7–15.
Zhang, H. and X. Zhang. 2000. Dongbeiya huanjing hezuo de huigu yu zhanwang. (Retrospect and prospect of environmental cooperation in Northeast Asia). Studies of International Politics 2: 76–79.
Zhang, M. 2008. Lun huanjing NGO yuzhengfu de xiezuo guanxi (On the cooperative relationship between environmental NGOs and government). Environment and Sustainable Development 1: 52–54.
Zhao, F. 2001. Lvse de dongyuan liliang: Feizhengfu huanbao zuzhi de chuanbo huodong qianxi (The mobilization capacity of the green forces: Analysis of the communication activities of non–governmental organizations). Modern Communication 6: 49–53.
Zhao, S. 2007. Huanjing baohu yundong zhong yizhi buke huoque de jiji liliang (NGO: An indispensable positive force in environmental campaign). Social Sciences Review 7: 44–46.
Zhu, X. 2008. Zhuanxingqi zhongguo huanjing zhili de diqu chayi: Huanjing gongmin shehui bu zhongyao ma? (Regional disparity in environmental governance of transitional China: Isn’t environmental civil society important?). Comparative Economic and Social Institutions 137: 76–83.
Bao, M. 2003. Sulian de huanjing pohuai he huanjingzhuyi yundong (A review of Soviet destruction of the environment and the environmentalist movement). Journal of Shaanxi Normal University (Social Sciences) 32(4): 23–30.
Brook, T. and M. Frolic (eds). 1997. Civil society in China. Civil society in China, New York: M. E. Sharpe.
Chan, K.M. 2005. The development of NGOs under a post–totalitarian regime: The case of china. In Civil life, globalization, and political change in Asia: Organizing between family and state, ed. R.P. Weller. London: Routledge.
Chen, Q. 1995. Fangxingweiai de shengtai zhengzhixue (Eco–politics on the rise). Social Sciences 4: 71–73.
Clark, A.M. 1995. Non–governmental organizations and their influence on international society. Journal of International Affairs 48(2): 507–526.
Desai, U. 2002. Environmental politics and policy in industrialized countries. Cambridge: MIT.
Finnemore, M. and K. Sikkink. 1998. International norm dynamics and political change. International Organization 52(4): 887–917.
Goldman, M. 1999. Politically-engaged intellectuals in the 1990s. China Quarterly 159: 700–711.
Huan, Q. 1996. Qiansulian diqu huanjing zhengzhi de xingqi yu fazhan (The rise and development of environmental politics in the former Soviet Union). Journal of Shandong University 2: 112–120.
Huan, Q. 1997. Fanpan yu dongkuo: Dong’ou lvdangde xingqihe fazhan. (Rebellion and EU expansion: Rise and development of the Greens in Eastern Europe). Europe 4: 78–84.
Huan, Q. 1997. Lvse wutuobang: Shengtai zizhi zhuyi pingshu (Green Utopia: Comment on ecologic autonomy). Journal of Political Science 4: 80–88.
Huan, Q. 1998. Cong kangyidang dao yihuidang: Xiou lvdangde xinfazhan (From protest party to parliamentary party: The new development of the Green Party in Western Europe). Academic Journal of Shandong University 2: 62–71.
Huan, Q. 2000. Ouzhou lvdangyu huanjing tuanti de guanxi: Yi bilishi, deguo he yingguo weili (Relations between European Green Parties and environmental organizations—with a case study of Belgium, Germany, and Britain). Journal of Literature, History and Philosophy 6: 115–120.
Huan, Q. 2000. Shengtai shehui zhuyi pingshu (Review of eco–socialism). Studies on Marxism 4: 74–81.
Huan, Q. 2002. 80 niandai mo yilaide xiou huanjing yundong (Environmental movements in Western Europe since the 1980s: A quantitative analysis). Chinese Journal of European Studies 6: 75–84.
Huan, Q. 2004. Ouzhou zhizheng lvdang: zhengceyu zhegnzhi yingxiang (European Green Parties in national governments: Policy and political impacts). Chinese Journal of European Studies 4: 105–117.
Huan, Q. 2005. Beiou Lvdang yuouzhou yitihua (Nordic Greens and European integration: Cases of Sweden and Finland). Chinese Journal of European Studies 6: 68–80.
Huan, Q. 2006. Guonei shengtai shehui zhuyi yanjiu pinglun (Comment on domestic eco–socialist research). Jianghan Tribune 4: 13–18.
Huan, Q. 2006. Lvdang de ouzhouhua yu ouzhou minzhu: Gongnengyu juxian. (Europeanization of Greens and European democracy). Chinese Journal of European Studies 6: 80–103.
Huan, Q. 2006. Shengtai xiandaihua lilun yu lvse biange (Ecological modernization theory and Green reform). Marxism & Reality 2: 90–98.
Huan, Q. 2007. Huanjing weiji yu minzhu zhengzhi (Environmental crisis and democracy). Green Leaf 11: 51.
Huan, Q. 2007. Xifang huanjing gongminquan lilun yu lvse biange (Environmental citizenship theory and the Green conversion). Journal of Literature, History & Philosophy 1: 157–163.
Huan, Q. 2007. Huanjing zhengzhixue lilun yu shijian (Environmental politics: Theories and practice). Jinan: Shandong University Press.
Huan, Q. 2007. Huanjing zhengzhi guoji bijiao (Cross–national comparisons of environmental politics). Jinan: Shandong University Press.
Huan, Q. 2008. “Shehui zhuyi shengtai wenming”: Yizhong shuyuxue jiexi. (“Socialist Eco–civilization”: An analysis of the terminology). Green Leaf 2: 96–102.
Huan, Q., trans. 2008. The ecology of freedom: The emergence and dissolution of hierarchy, by Murray Bookchin. Jinan: Shangdong University Press.
Huan, Q. and C. Liu. 2000. Lvse siwei: Ouzhou lvdangde xinzhengzhiguan (Green thinking: The new politics of European Green Parties). Academic Journal of Shandong University 3: 95–102.
Huan, Q. and S. Huang. 2000. Honglv xiangjian: lvdang de zhegnzhi xingzhi (Between the Red and Green: The political characteristics of European Green Parties). Issues of Contemporary World Socialism 2: 81–87.
Huang, P.C. 1993. “Public sphere”/“civil society” in China? Modern China 19(2): 216–240.
Johnston, A.I. 2008. Social states: China in international institutions 1980–2000. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Keck, M. and K. Sikkink. 1998. Activists beyond borders: Advocacy networks in international politics. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Kelley, J. 2004. International actors on the domestic scene: Membership conditionality and socialization by international institutions. International Organization 58(3): 425–457.
Li, F. 2003. Shilun yingguo de huanjing feizhengfu zuzhi (On uk’s environmental non–governmental organizations). Academic Forum 6: 47–50.
Li, G. 2005. Shengtai zhengzhixue: lishi, fanshi yu xueke dingwei (Ecological politics: History, paradigm and subject disciplines). Marxism and Reality 2: 21–27.
Li, H., trans. 2008. The multi–dimensional crisis and inclusive democracy, (by Takēs Phōtopoulos. Jinan: Shangdong University Press.
Lieberthal, K. and D. Lampton (eds). 1992. Bureaucracy, Politics, and Decision Making in Post-Mao China. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Lieberthal, K. and M. Oksenberg. 1988. Policy making in China: Leaders, structures, and processes. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Liu, J. 1995. Shengtai zhengzhi lun (On the ecological politics). Study and Exploration 3: 83–88.
Liu, J. 2001. Shengtai zhengzhi lilun de fangfalun yuanze (The methodological principles of eco–political theory). Jianghai Academic Journal 4: 64–69.
Liu, R. 2003. Shengtai zhengzhi yanjiu yinlun (Introduction of eco–political research). Theory Monthly 1: 89–90.
Liu, Y., trans. 2005. Eco–socialism from deep ecology to social justice, by David Pepper. Jinan: Shangdong University Press.
Ma, Q. 2005. Non–governmental organizations in contemporary China paving the way to civil society?. NY: Routledge.
Madsen, R. 1993. The public sphere, civil society and moral community. Modern China 19(2): 183–198.
Mei, J., trans. 2002. Eco–politics: Building a Green society, by Daniel A. Coleman. Shanghai: Shanghai Translation Publishing House.
Pearson, M. 1997. China’s new business elite. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Price, R. 2003. Transnational civil society and advocacy in world politics. World Politics 55: 579–606.
Read, B.L. 2008. Assessing variation in civil society organizations: China’s homeowner associations in comparative perspective. Comparative Political Studies 41(9): 1240–1264.
Solinger, D. 1993. China’s transcients and the state: A form of civil society? Politics and Society 21(1): 91–122.
Tong, Y. 1994. State, society, and political change in China and Hungary. Comparative Politics 26(3): 333–353.
Tsai, K.S. 2007. Capitalism without democracy: The private sector in contemporary China. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Vogel, E.F. 2005. Foreword: The first forty years of the universities service centre for China studies. China Journal 53: 1–7.
Wang, S., and J. He. 2004. Associational Revolution in China: Mapping the Landscape. Korea Observer 35(3)
White, G., J. Howell, et al. 1996. In search of civil society: Market reform and social change in contemporary China. New York: Oxford University Press.
Wu, H. and L. Zhu. 2006. Huanjing zhengzhi wenti de shenceng sikao (Deep reflections on the problems of environmental politics—comments on the environmental political view of Daniel A. Coleman). Theory Monthly 10: 119–121.
Xu, K., trans. 2005. Environmental movements: Local, national and global, by Christopher Rootes. Jinan: Shangdong University Press.
Zhang, S., trans. 2008. Eco–socialism or Eco–capitalism, by Saral K. Sarkar. Jinan: Shangdong University Press.
Zheng, Y. and J. Fewsmith (eds). 2008. China’s opening society: The non–state sector and governance. London: Routledge.
Zhou, F. 1987. Huanjing wenti de zhengzhi jingjixue (Political economy of environmental problems). Beijing: Chinese Environmental Science Press.
Zhu, Dajian et al., trans. 2001. Beyond growth: The economics of sustainable development, by Herman E. Daly. Shanghai: Shanghai Translation Publishing House.
Zurn, M. 1998. The rise of international environmental politics: A review of current research. World Politics 50(4): 617–649.
The author acknowledges the following scholars who have shared their valuable reflections on the field of environmental politics in China (names in alphabetic order): Elizabeth Economy, Peter Ho, Jianguo Liu, Andrew Mertha, Leonard Ortolano, Vaclav Smil, Benjamin van Rooij, and Hongyuan Yu. All errors in the article, nevertheless, remain solely as the author’s. Graduate students Xinlei Li (Shangdong University) and Juan Chu (Chinese University of Hong Kong) provided fine and necessary research assistance.
About this article
Cite this article
Wu, F. Environmental Politics in China: An Issue Area in Review. J OF CHIN POLIT SCI 14, 383–406 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11366-009-9072-8
- Environmental Politics
- Chinese Politics
- Environmental Governance
- Environmental Movement
- Environmental Foreign Relations