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Are different entrepreneurship-promotion activities equally effective? an analysis by academic year and gender


Entrepreneurial education (EE) has proliferated in recent years, however, while previous research has extensively analyzed the impact of EE on students’ entrepreneurial intentions (EI), studies tend to analyze EE as a monolithic concept without distinguishing between different types of academic activities and hence under examining how EE achieves its goals. To fill this gap in the literature, drawing on Ajzen’s (1991) Theory of Planned Behavior and EE theory, we examine the relative effectiveness of different teaching models (supply, demand, and competence models) and specific academic activities in developing entrepreneurial intentions (EI). In particular, we focus on interdisciplinary activities (i.e., activities involving students from varying profiles and career fields), a type of academic activity that has been neglected by previous literature. We also explore potential differences in the effectiveness of these models depending on students’ educational stage and gender, factors which have also been overlooked by the literature. Using survey data from 859 business school students, a structural model, and partial least squares technique, we found differences in the impact of teaching models on students’ EI depending on activity characteristics, as well as student educational stage and gender. The results have important implications for educational practice and for public and private organizations interested in promoting entrepreneurship: i) the importance of autonomy, experiential learning, and exploratory learning in entrepreneurship-promotion activities, and ii) the convenience of tailoring these activities according to the gender, year of education, and academic field of the students.

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  1. Note that the total effect of SN on EI is still positive and significant, thanks to the indirect positive effects through EPA and PBC.


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We are grateful to Prof. Francisco Liñán for his contribution in an earlier version of this article, and to Julien De Freyman for his help with the data. We are also grateful to the participants of the Internacional Symposium "El desafío de emprender en la escuela del siglo XXI", Universidad de Sevilla, the 10th International Research Meeting in Business and Management (IRMBAM-2019) and the 2020 Loyola Workshop on Economic Behaviour, for their helpful comments. Laura Padilla-Angulo is grateful to The Spanish National Science Foundation (PGC2018-093506-B-I00) and Excelencia Junta (PY-18-FR-0007). All errors are ours.

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Correspondence to Antonio Luis Leal-Rodríguez.

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Items in the Entrepreneurial Intention Questionnaire (in this research, the items were translated into the French language)




Starting a firm and keeping it viable would be easy for me


A career as an entrepreneur is totally unattractive to me


My friends would approve of my decision to start a business


I am ready to do anything to be an entrepreneur


I believe I would be completely unable to start a business


I will make every effort to start and run my own business


I am able to control the creation process of a new business


My immediate family would approve of my decision to start a business


I have serious doubts about ever starting my own business


If I had the opportunity and resources, I would love to start a business


My colleagues would approve of my decision to start a business


Among various options, I would rather be anything but an entrepreneur


I am determined to create a business venture in the future


If I tried to start a business, I would have a high chance of being successful


Being an entrepreneur would give me great satisfaction


It would be very difficult for me to develop a business idea


My professional goal is to become an entrepreneur


Being an entrepreneur implies more advantages than disadvantages to me


I have a very low intention of ever starting a business


I know all about the practical details needed to start a business

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Padilla-Angulo, L., Díaz-Pichardo, R. & Leal-Rodríguez, A.L. Are different entrepreneurship-promotion activities equally effective? an analysis by academic year and gender. Int Entrep Manag J 19, 1–25 (2023).

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  • Entrepreneurial intentions
  • Entrepreneurial education
  • Gender differences
  • Interdisciplinarity
  • Partial least squares
  • Teaching-model archetypes