Institutions play an important role in women’s and men’s entrepreneurial behaviors. This article provides a systematic review of institutions and women’s entrepreneurship literature through an institutional lens, with a particular focus on informal and formal institutions. The article sets out to explore institutions for women’s entrepreneurship, illustrating why having an institutional perspective of women’s entrepreneurship contributes to a deeper understanding of the phenomenon. To reach this aim, we analyze and classify the scholarship by explanatory factors and type of informal and formal institutions. The article suggests that gender roles, as an informal institution, influence the creation of both informal and formal institutions, and in turn, the women’s entrepreneurial behaviors is based on gender roles. Finally, a theoretical model is developed, which allocates women’s entrepreneurship in the center and shows the role of institutional environment in their decision to start new ventures. Implications for future research are finally discussed.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
We omitted books, book chapters and non-refereed publications. According to Podsakoff et al. (2005) journal articles are considered validated knowledge and the impact on the field are higher than other types of publications.
We also included articles from “International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship” that is journal without impact factor journal.
Besides that English is the common language of academic publications, there is a probability that there are valuables articles in other languages which may be excluded. Therefore, the sample may be biased toward an Anglo-Saxon approach, we follow the same selection criterion as Claus and Briscoe (2009) in order to maintain the scope of the project manageable and within extend of the authors. We also focused on only articles already published because it serves a quality check, reduces the complexity and low quality articles (Pukall and Calabrò 2014; Newbert 2007). Following Podsakoff et al. (2005), we classified and revised only articles from peer-reviewed journals and journal with Journal Citation Factor (JIF) in order to ensure scientific quality and reputation in the field.
Schumpeter classifies individuals to pursue the desire of independence and observe an opportunity in the market as opportunity-driven individuals. Individuals might also be necessity-driven when individuals do not have other options in the traditional labor market and they have no other choice than starting their businesses.
Achtenhagen, L., & Welter, F. (2011). Surfing on the ironing board' - the representation of women's entrepreneurship in German newspapers. Entrepreneurship and Regional. Development, 23(9–10), 763–786.
Acker, J. (1990). Hierarchies, jobs, bodies: A theory of gendered organizations. Gender & Society, 4(2), 139–158.
Acker, J. (1992a). From sex roles to gendered institutions. Contemporary Sociology: A Journal of Reviews, 21(5), 565–569.
Acker, J. (1992b). Gendering organizational theory (classics of organizational theory). Boston: Cengage Learning.
Acker, J. (2006). Inequality regimes gender, class, and race in organizations. Gender & Society, 20(4), 441–464.
Acs, Z., Desai, S., & Hessels, J. (2008). Entrepreneurship, economic development and institutions. Small Business Economics, 31(3), 219–234. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-008-9135-9.
Aguilera, R. V., & Jackson, G. (2003). The cross-national diversity of corporate governance: Dimensions and determinants. Academy of Management Review, 28(3), 447–465.
Ahl, H. (2002). The making of the female entrepreneur: A discourse analysis of research texts on Women’s entrepreneurship. Jönköping: Jönköping International Business School.
Ahl, H. (2006). Why research on women entrepreneurs needs new directions. Entrepreneurship. Theory and Practice, 30(5), 595–621.
Ahl, H., & Marlow, S. (2012). Gender and entrepreneurship research: Employing feminist theory to escape the dead end. Organization, 19(5), 543–562.
Ahl, H., & Nelson, T. (2015). How policy positions women entrepreneurs: A comparative analysis of state discourse in Sweden and the United States. Journal of Business Venturing, 30(2), 273–291.
Aidis, R., Welter, F., Smallbone, D., & Isakova, N. (2007). Female entrepreneurship in transition economies: The case of Lithuania and Ukraine. Feminist Economics, 13(2), 157–183.
Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179–211.
Aldrich, H. E., & Cliff, J. E. (2003). The pervasive effects of family on entrepreneurship: Toward a family embeddedness perspective. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(5), 573–596.
Amine, L. S., & Staub, K. M. (2009). Women entrepreneurs in sub-Saharan Africa: An institutional theory analysis from a social marketing point of view. Entrepreneurship and Regional. Development, 21(2), 183–211.
Anna, A. L., Chandler, G. N., Jansen, E., & Mero, N. P. (2000). Women business owners in traditional and non-traditional industries. Journal of Business Venturing, 15(3), 279–303.
Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.
Baughn, C. C., Chua, B. L., & Neupert, K. E. (2006). The normative context for women's participation in entrepreneruship: A multicountry study. Entrepreneurship. Theory and Practice, 30(5), 687–708.
Bem, S. L. (1993). The lenses of gender: Transforming the debate on sexual inequality. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Bennett, R., & Dann, S. (2000). The changing experience of Australian female entrepreneurs. Gender, Work & Organization, 7(2), 75–83.
Boden Jr, R. J., & Nucci, A. R. (2000). On the survival prospects of men's and women's new business ventures. Journal of Business Venturing, 15(4), 347–362.
Botha, M., Nieman, G., & Van Vuuren, J. (2006). Enhancing female entrepreneurship by enabling access to skills. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 2(4), 479–493.
Bourne, K. A. (2010). The paradox of gender equality: An entrepreneurial case study from Sweden. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 2(1), 10–26.
Bourne, K. A., & Calás, M. B. (2013). Becoming 'real' entrepreneurs: Women and the gendered normalization of 'work. Gender, Work & Organization, 20(4), 425–438.
Bowen, D. D., & Hisrich, R. D. (1986). The female entrepreneur: A career development perspective. Academy of Management Review, 11(2), 393–407. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMR.1986.4283366.
Bruni, A., Gherardi, S., & Poggio, B. (2004). Entrepreneur-mentality, gender and the study of women entrepreneurs. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 17(3), 256–268.
Brush, C. G. (1992). Research on women business owners: Past trends, a new perspective and future directions. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 16(4), 5–31.
Brush, C. G., & Hisrich, R. D. (1991). Antecedent influences on women-owned businesses. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 6(2), 9.
Brush, C., de Bruin, A., & Welter, F. (2009). A gender-aware framework for women's entrepreneurship. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 1(1), 8–24.
Bullough, A., Renko, M., & Abdelzaher, D. (2014). Women’s business ownership: Operating within the context of institutional and in-group collectivism. Journal of Management. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206314561302.
Burke, A. E., FitzRoy, F. R., & Nolan, M. A. (2002). Self-employment wealth and job creation: The roles of gender, non-pecuniary motivation and entrepreneurial ability. Small Business Economics, 19(3), 255–270.
Buttner, H. E. (1993). Female entrepreneurs: How far have they come? Business Horizons, 36(2), 59–65.
Buttner, E. H., & Rosen, B. (1988). Bank loan officers' perceptions of the characteristics of men, women, and successful entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing, 3(3), 249–258.
Buttner, E. H., & Rosen, B. (1989). Funding new business ventures: Are decision makers biased against women entrepreneurs? Journal of Business Venturing, 4(4), 249.
Calas, M. B., Smircich, L., & Bourne, K. A. (2009). Extending the boundaries: Reframing “entrepreneurship as social change” through feminist perspectives. Academy of Management Review, 34(3), 552–569.
Carter, S., & Rosa, P. (1998). The financing of male- and female-owned businesses. Entrepreneurship and Regional. Development, 10(3), 225–241.
Carter, N. M., Williams, M., & Reynolds, P. D. (1997). Discontinuance among new firms in retail: The influence of initial resources, strategy, and gender. Journal of Business Venturing, 12(2), 125–145.
Clark, B. R. (1986). The higher education system: Academic organization in cross-national perspective. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Clark, C. E., & Newell, S. (2013). Institutional work and complicit decoupling across the US capital markets: The work of rating agencies. Business Ethics Quarterly, 23(1), 1–30.
Claus, L., & Briscoe, D. (2009). Employee performance management across borders: A review of relevant academic literature. International Journal of Management Reviews, 11(2), 175–196.
Cliff, J. E. (1998). Does one size fit all? Exploring the relationship between attitudes towards growth, gender, and business size. Journal of Business Venturing, 13(6), 523–542.
Coleman, S. (2007). The role of human and financial capital in the profitability and growth of women-owned small firms. Journal of Small Business Management, 45(3), 303–319.
Coleman, S., & Robb, A. (2009). A comparison of new firm financing by gender: Evidence from the Kauffman firm survey data. Small Business Economics, 33(4), 397–411. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-009-9205-7.
Creed, W. D., Hudson, B. A., Okhuysen, G. A., & Smith-Crowe, K. (2014). Swimming in a sea of shame: Incorporating emotion into explanations of institutional reproduction and change. Academy of Management Review, 39(3), 275–301.
Cromie, S., & Birley, S. (1992). Networking by female business owners in Northern Ireland. Journal of Business Venturing, 7(3), 237–251.
Davis, A. E., & Shaver, K. G. (2012). Understanding gendered variations in business growth intentions across the life course. Entrepreneurship. Theory and Practice, 36(3), 495–512.
De Vita, L., Mari, M., & Poggesi, S. (2014). Women entrepreneurs in and from developing countries: Evidences from the literature. European Management Journal, 32(3), 451–460.
DeMartino, R., & Barbato, R. (2003). Differences between women and men MBA entrepreneurs: Exploring family flexibility and wealth creation as career motivators. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(6), 815.
Denzau, A. T., & North, D. C. (1994). Shared mental models: Ideologies and institutions. Kyklos, 47(1), 3–31.
Djankov, S., La Porta, R., Lopez-de-Silanes, F., & Shleifer, A. (2002). The regulation of entry. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 117(1), 1–37.
Du Rietz, A., & Henrekson, M. (2000). Testing the female underperformance hypothesis. Small Business Economics, 14(1), 1.
Eddleston, K. A., & Powell, G. N. (2012). Nurturing entrepreneurs' work-family balance: A gendered perspective. Entrepreneurship. Theory and Practice, 36(3), 513–541.
Elam, A., & Terjesen, S. (2010). Gendered institutions and cross-national patterns of business creation for men and women. European Journal of Development Research, 22(3), 331–348.
Esping-Andersen, G. (2002). Why we need a new welfare state. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Esping-Andersen, G. (2013). The three worlds of welfare capitalism. New York: Wiley.
Estrin, S., & Mickiewicz, T. (2011). Institutions and female entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 37(4), 397–415.
Fairlie, R. W., & Robb, A. M. (2009). Gender differences in business performance: Evidence from the characteristics of business owners survey. Small Business Economics, 33(4), 375–395.
Field, E., Jayachandran, S., & Pande, R. (2010). Do traditional institutions constrain female entrepreneurship? A field experiment on business training in India. American Economic Review, 100(2), 125–129. https://doi.org/10.1257/aer.100.2.125.
Fischer, E. M., Reuber, A. R., & Dyke, L. S. (1993). A theoretical overview and extension of research on sex, gender, and entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 8(2), 151–168.
García, M.-C. D., & Welter, F. (2013). Gender identities and practices: Interpreting women entrepreneurs’ narratives. International Small Business Journal, 31(4), 384–404.
Gatewood, E., Brush, C., Carter, N., Greene, P., & Hart, M. (2009). Diana: A symbol of women entrepreneurs’ hunt for knowledge, money, and the rewards of entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics, 32(2), 129–144. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11187-008-9152-8.
Gilligan, C. (1982). a different voice. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Ginsberg, A., & Venkatraman, N. (1985). Contingency perspectives of organizational strategy: A critical review of the empirical research. Academy of Management Review, 10(3), 421–434.
Glaeser, E. L., La Porta, R., Lopez-de-Silanes, F., & Shleifer, A. (2004). Do institutions cause growth? Journal of Economic Growth, 9(3), 271–303.
Goltz, S., Buche, M. W., & Pathak, S. (2015). Political empowerment, rule of law, and women's entry into entrepreneurship. Journal of Small Business Management, 53(3), 605–626. https://doi.org/10.1111/jsbm.12177.
Gray, K. R. (2001). Women entrepreneurs in Morocco: A preliminary investigation. Journal of North African Studies, 6(4), 64–74.
Gray, K. R., & Finley-Hervey, J. (2005). Women and entrepreneurship in Morocco: Debunking stereotypes and discerning strategies. [journal article]. The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 1(2), 203–217. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-005-1129-3.
Greene, F. J., Han, L., & Marlow, S. (2013). Like mother, like daughter? Analyzing maternal influences upon women's entrepreneurial propensity. Entrepreneurship. Theory and Practice, 37(4), 687–711.
Greif, A. (1994). Cultural beliefs and the organization of society: A historical and theoretical reflection on collectivist and individualist societies. Journal of Political Economy, 102(5), 912–950.
Group, W. B. (2013). Women, business and the law. Washington, DC: Work Bank Group.
Gupta, V. K., Goktan, A. B., & Gunay, G. (2014). Gender differences in evaluation of new business opportunity: A stereotype threat perspective. Journal of Business Venturing, 29(2), 273–288. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusvent.2013.02.002.
Hamilton, E. (2013). The discourse of entrepreneurial masculinities (and femininities). Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 25(1–2), 90–99. https://doi.org/10.1080/08985626.2012.746879.
Hampton, A., Cooper, S., & McGowan, P. (2009). Female entrepreneurial networks and networking activity in technology-based ventures: An exploratory study. International Small Business Journal, 27(2), 193–214.
Hechavarría, D. M., Terjesen, S. A., Ingram, A. E., Renko, M., Justo, R., & Elam, A. (2017). Taking care of business: The impact of culture and gender on entrepreneurs’ blended value creation goals. Small Business Economics, 48(1), 225–257.
Helmke, G., & Levitsky, S. (2004). Informal institutions and comparative politics: A research agenda. Perspectives on Politics, 2(04), 725–740.
Hisrich, R. D., & Brush, C. G. (1983). The woman entrepreneur: implications of family, education, and occupation. In J. A. Hornaday, J. A. Timmons, & K. H. Vesper (Eds.),Frontiers of entrepreneurship research—Proceedings of the Babson College Conference on Entrepreneurship (pp. 255–270). Wellesley: Babson College.
Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture's consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications Inc..
House, R. J., Hanges, P. J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P. W., & Gupta, V. (2004). Culture, leadership, and organizations: The GLOBE study of 62 societies. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Hughes, K. D., Jennings, J. E., Brush, C., Carter, S., & Welter, F. (2012). Extending women's entrepreneurship research in new directions. Entrepreneurship. Theory and Practice, 36(3), 429–442.
Iannello, K. (1992). Decisions without hierarchy: Feminist interventions in organization theory and practice. New York: Routledge.
Jennings, J. E., & Brush, C. G. (2013). Research on women entrepreneurs: Challenges to (and from) the broader entrepreneurship literature? Academy of Management Annals, 7(1), 663–715.
Jennings, J., & McDougald, M. (2007). Work-family interface experiences and coping strategies: Implications for entrepreneurship research and practice. Academy of Management Review, 32(3), 747–760.
Jennings, J. E., Jennings, P. D., & Sharifian, M. (2016). Living the dream? Assessing the “entrepreneurship as emancipation” perspective in a developed region. Entrepreneurship. Theory and Practice, 40(1), 81–110.
Kalleberg, A. L., & Leicht, K. T. (1991). Gender and organizational performance: Determinants of small business survival and success. Academy of Management Journal, 34(1), 136–161.
Kelley, D. J., Brush, C., Greene, P., Herrington, M., Ali, A., & Kew, P. (2015). GEM special report Women's entrepreneurship. Babson Park: Babson College.
Kirkwood, J. (2007). Igniting the entrepreneurial spirit: Is the role parents play gendered? International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 13(1), 39–59.
Klapper, L. F., & Parker, S. C. (2011). Gender and the business environment for new firm creation. The World Bank Research Observer, 26(2), 237–257.
Klyver, K., Nielsen, S. L., & Evald, M. R. (2013). Women's self-employment: An act of institutional (dis)integration? A multilevel, cross-country study. Journal of Business Venturing, 28(4), 474–488.
Koellinger, P., Minniti, M., & Schade, C. (2013). Gender differences in entrepreneurial propensity. Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, 75(2), 213–234. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0084.2011.00689.x.
Langowitz, N., & Minniti, M. (2007). The entrepreneurial propensity of women. Entrepreneurship. Theory and Practice, 31(3), 341–364.
Lawrence, T. B., & Suddaby, R. (2006). Institutions and institutional work. The sage handbook of organization Studies, 2, 215–254.
Lawrence, T., Suddaby, R., & Leca, B. (2011). Institutional work: Refocusing institutional studies of organization. Journal of Management Inquiry, 20(1), 52–58.
Lee, J. H., Sohn, S. Y., & Ju, Y. H. (2011). How effective is government support for Korean women entrepreneurs in small and medium enterprises? Journal of Small Business Management, 49(4), 599–616.
Lerner, M., Brush, C., & Hisrich, R. (1997). Israeli women entrepreneurs: An examination of factors affecting performance. Journal of Business Venturing, 12(4), 315–339.
Levinson, D., Darrow, C., Klein, E., Levinson, M., & McKee, B. (1974). The psychosocial development of men in early adulthood and the mid-life transition. Life History Research in. Psychopathology, 3, 243–248.
Lewis, P. (2006). The quest for invisibility: Female entrepreneurs and the masculine norm of entrepreneurship. Gender, Work & Organization, 13(5), 453–469. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0432.2006.00317.x.
Loscocco, K., & Bird, S. R. (2012). Gendered paths: Why women lag behind men in small business success. Work and Occupations, 39(2), 183–219.
Manolova, T. S., Carter, N. M., Manev, I. M., & Gyoshev, B. S. (2007). The differential effect of men and women entrepreneurs' human capital and networking on growth expectancies in Bulgaria. Entrepreneurship. Theory and Practice, 31(3), 407–426.
Manolova, T. S., Brush, C. G., Edelman, L. F., & Shaver, K. G. (2012). One size does not fit all: Entrepreneurial expectancies and growth intentions of US women and men nascent entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship and Regional. Development, 24(1/2), 7–27.
Marlow, S., & McAdam, M. (2012). Analyzing the influence of gender upon high-technology venturing within the context of business incubation. Entrepreneurship. Theory and Practice, 36(4), 655–676.
Marlow, S., & McAdam, M. (2013). Gender and entrepreneurship: Advancing debate and challenging myths; exploring the mystery of the under-performing female entrepreneur. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 19(1), 114–124.
Marlow, S., & Patton, D. (2005). All credit to men? Entrepreneurship, finance, and gender. Entrepreneurship. Theory and Practice, 29(6), 717–735.
Marlow, S., & Swail, J. (2014). Gender, risk and finance: Why can't a woman be more like a man? Entrepreneurship and Regional. Development, 26(1–2), 80–96.
McGowan, P., Redeker, C. L., Cooper, S. Y., & Greenan, K. (2012). Female entrepreneurship and the management of business and domestic roles: Motivations, expectations and realities. Entrepreneurship and Regional. Development, 24(1–2), 53–72.
Meyer, J. W. (1977). The effects of education as an institution. American Journal of Sociology, 83(1), 55–77.
Miller, L. E., & Grush, J. E. (1988). Improving predictions in expectancy theory research: Effects of personality, expectancies, and norms. Academy of Management Journal, 31(1), 107–122.
Minniti, M. (2010). Female entrepreneurship and economic activity. European Journal of Development Research, 22(3), 294–312.
Mirchandani, K. (1999). Feminist insight on gendered work: New directions in research on women and entrepreneurship. Gender, Work and Organization, 6(4), 224–235.
Morris, M. H., Miyasaki, N. N., Watters, C. E., & Coombes, S. M. (2006). The dilemma of growth: Understanding venture size choices of women entrepreneurs. Journal of Small Business Management, 44(2), 221–244. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-627X.2006.00165.x.
Neider, L. (1987). A preliminary investigation of female entrepreneurs in Florida. Journal of Small Business Management, 25(3), 22–29.
Newbert, S. L. (2007). Empirical research on the resource-based view of the firm: An assessment and suggestions for future research. Strategic Management Journal, 28(2), 121–146.
Noguera, M., Alvarez, C., & Urbano, D. (2013). Socio-cultural factors and female entrepreneurship. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 9(2), 183–197.
North, D. C. (1990). Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Orser, B. J., Riding, A. L., & Manley, K. (2006). Women entrepreneurs and financial capital. Entrepreneurship. Theory and Practice, 30(5), 643–665.
Orser, B., Riding, A., & Stanley, J. (2012). Perceived career challenges and response strategies of women in the advanced technology sector. Entrepreneurship & Regional. Development, 24(1/2), 73–93.
Orser, B., Elliott, C., & Leck, J. (2013). Entrepreneurial feminists: Perspectives about opportunity recognition and governance. Journal of Business Ethics, 115(2), 241–257.
Podsakoff, P. M., Mackenzie, S. B., Bachrach, D. G., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2005). The influence of management journals in the 1980s and 1990s. Strategic Management Journal, 26(5), 473–488.
Powell, W., & DiMaggio, P. (1991). The new institutionalism in organizational analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Powell, G. N., & Eddleston, K. A. (2013). Linking family-to-business enrichment and support to entrepreneurial success: Do female and male entrepreneurs experience different outcomes? Journal of Business Venturing, 28(2), 261–280.
Pukall, T. J., & Calabrò, A. (2014). The internationalization of family firms: A critical review and integrative model. Family Business Review, 27(2), 103–125.
Robb, A. M., & Watson, J. (2012). Gender differences in firm performance: Evidence from new ventures in the United States. Journal of Business Venturing, 27(5), 544–558.
Rojas, F. (2010). Power through institutional work: Acquiring academic authority in the 1968 third world strike. Academy of Management Journal, 53(6), 1263–1280.
Roomi, M. A. (2013). Entrepreneurial capital, social values and Islamic traditions: Exploring the growth of women-owned enterprises in Pakistan. International Small Business Journal, 31(2), 175–191.
Roper, S., & Scott, J. M. (2009). Perceived financial barriers and the start-up decision an econometric analysis of gender differences using GEM data. International Small Business Journal, 27(2), 149–171. https://doi.org/10.1177/0266242608100488.
Salmenniemi, S., Karhunen, P., & Kosonen, R. (2011). Between business and byt: Experiences of women entrepreneurs in contemporary Russia. Europe-Asia Studies, 63(1), 77–98.
Schumpeter, J. A. (1930). Capitalism, socialism and democracy. London: Routledge.
Schwartz, E. B. (1976). Entrepreneurship-new female frontier. Journal of Contemporary Business, 5(1), 47–76.
Sexton, D. L., & Bowman-Upton, N. (1990). Female and male entrepreneurs: Psychological characteristics and their role in gender-related discrimination. Journal of Business Venturing, 5(1), 29–36.
Shelton, L. M. (2006). Female entrepreneurs, work-family conflict, and venture performance: New insights into the work-family interface. Journal of Small Business Management, 44(2), 285–297.
Smith, R. (2010). Masculinity, doxa and the institutionalisation of entrepreneurial identity in the novel Cityboy. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 2(1), 27–48.
Stainback, K., Kleiner, S., & Skaggs, S. (2016). Women in power undoing or redoing the gendered organization? Gender & Society, 30(1), 109–135.
Stigler, G. J. (1971). The theory of economic regulation. The Bell Journal of Economics and Management Science, 2(1), 3–21.
World Value Survey (2014). http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/wvs.jsp. Accessed 26 Aug 2016.
Terjesen, S., & Amorós, J. E. (2010). Female entrepreneurship in Latin America and the Caribbean: Characteristics, drivers and relationship to economic development. European Journal of Development Research, 22(3), 313–330.
Thébaud, S. (2015). Business as plan B institutional foundations of gender inequality in entrepreneurship across 24 industrialized countries. Administrative Science Quarterly. https://doi.org/10.1177/0001839215591627.
Thornton, P. H., & Ocasio, W. (2008). Institutional logics. The Sage handbook of organizational institutionalism, 840, 99–128.
Tlaiss, H. A. (2014). How Islamic business ethics impact women entrepreneurs: Insights from four arab middle eastern countries. Journal of Business Ethics, 129(4), 859–877. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-014-2138-3.
Tlaiss, H. (2015). How islamic business ethics impact women entrepreneurs: Insights from four Arab middle eastern countries. Journal of Business Ethics, 129(4), 859–877. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-014-2138-3.
Ufuk, H., & Özgen, Ö. (2001). Interaction between the business and family lives of women entrepreneurs in Turkey. Journal of Business Ethics, 31(2), 95–106.
van der Zwan, P., Verheul, I., & Thurik, A. R. (2012). The entrepreneurial ladder, gender, and regional development. Small Business Economics, 39(3), 627–643.
Verheul, I., & Thurik, R. (2001). Start-up capital: "does gender matter?". Small Business Economics, 16(4), 329–345.
Verheul, I., Stel, A. V., & Thurik, R. (2006). Explaining female and male entrepreneurship at the country level. Entrepreneurship and Regional. Development, 18(2), 151–183.
Warnecke, T. (2013). Entrepreneurship and gender: An institutional perspective. Journal of Economic Issues, 47(2), 455–463. https://doi.org/10.2753/jei0021-3624470219.
Waylen, G. (2014). Informal institutions, institutional change, and gender equality. Political Research Quarterly, 67(1), 212–223.
Weiler, S., & Bernasek, A. (2001). Dodging the glass ceiling? Networks and the new wave of women entrepreneurs. Social Science Journal, 38(1), 85.
Welsh, D. H. B., Memili, E., Kaciak, E., & Al Sadoon, A. (2014). Saudi women entrepreneurs: A growing economic segment. Journal of Business Research, 67(5), 758–762.
Welter, F., & Smallbone, D. (2008). Women's entrepreneurship from an institutional perspective: The case of Uzbekistan. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 4(4), 505–520.
Welter, F., Smallbone, D., & Isakova, N. B. (2006). Enterprising women in transition economies. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd..
West, C., & Zimmerman, D. H. (1987). Doing gender. Gender & Society, 1(2), 125–151.
Williamson, O. E. (1998). The institutions of governance. The American Economic Review, 88(2), 75–79.
Williamson, O. E. (2000). The new institutional economics: Taking stock, looking ahead. Journal of Economic Literature, 38(3), 595–613.
Wilson, F., & Tagg, S. (2010). Social constructionism and personal constructivism. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 2(1), 68–82.
Wilson, F., Carter, S., Tagg, S., Shaw, E., & Lam, W. (2007). Bank loan officers' perceptions of business owners: The role of gender. British Journal of Management, 18(2), 154–171.
Winn, J. (2005). Women entrepreneurs: Can we remove the barriers? The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 1(3), 381–397.
Yousafzai, S. Y., Saeed, S., & Muffatto, M. (2015). Institutional theory and contextual embeddedness of women's entrepreneurial ;eadership: Evidence from 92 countries. Journal of Small Business Management, 53(3), 587–604.
Zietsma, C., & Lawrence, T. B. (2010). Institutional work in the transformation of an organizational field: The interplay of boundary work and practice work. Administrative Science Quarterly, 55(2), 189–221.
About this article
Cite this article
Giménez, D., Calabrò, A. The salient role of institutions in Women’s entrepreneurship: a critical review and agenda for future research. Int Entrep Manag J 14, 857–882 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-017-0480-5
- Women entrepreneurs
- Formal and informal institutions
- New ventures
- Institutional change