Advertisement

The role of network density and betweenness centrality in diffusing new venture legitimacy: an epidemiological approach

  • James M. BloodgoodEmail author
  • Jeffrey S. Hornsby
  • Matthew Rutherford
  • Richard G. McFarland
Article

Abstract

To survive and grow, new ventures must establish initial legitimacy, and subsequently diffuse this legitimacy through a given population. While the notion of initial legitimacy has received substantial attention in the recent literature, diffusion has not. This work endeavors to outline the legitimacy diffusion process via drawing parallels with the field of epidemiology. Ultimately, to effectively diffuse legitimacy (and grow) a firm must gain positive judgments of appropriateness from members of a given network. Importantly, as with diseases, the characteristics of the network are critical to the diffusion process. A relatively dense network is posited to invoke a normative evaluation process by its members, and can be difficult for new ventures to access, but subsequent diffusion of new venture legitimacy can be rapid. A less dense network, on the other hand, is posited to invoke a pragmatic evaluation process by its members, and is likely easier for new ventures to access initially, but may result in lower levels of new venture legitimacy diffusion in the long run. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Keywords

Legitimacy Diffusion Network density Epidemiology Betweenness centrality Legitimacy threshold 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Adler, P. (1981). Momentum. Beverly Hills: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  2. Ahmakjian, C. L., & Robinson, P. (2001). Safety in numbers: Downsizing and the deinstitutionalization of permanent employment in Japan. Administrative Science Quarterly, 46(4), 622–654.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aldrich, H., & Fiol, R. (1994). Fools rush in? The institutional context of industry creation. Academy of Management Review, 19(4), 645–670.Google Scholar
  4. Aldrich, H., & Martinez, M. A. (2000). Many are called, but few are chosen: An evolutionary perspective for the study of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 25, 41–56.Google Scholar
  5. Almobaireek, W. N., Alshumaimeri, A. A., & Manolova, T. S. (2016). Building entrepreneurial inter-firm networks in an emerging economy: The role of cognitive legitimacy. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 12, 87–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Anderson, R. M., & May, R. M. (1991). Infectious Diseases of Humans: Dynamics and Control. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Aunger, R. (2002). Exposure versus susceptibility in the epidemiology of “everyday” beliefs. Journal of Cognition and Culture, 2(2), 113–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barbalet, J. (2014). The structure of guanxi: resolving problems of network assurance. Theory and Society, 43, 51–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baron, R. (1998). Cognitive mechanisms in entrepreneurship: when and why entrepreneurs think differently than other people. Journal of Business Venturing, 13, 275–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baum, J. A. C., & Oliver, C. (1991). Institutional linkages and organizational mortality. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36, 187–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bhave, M. P. (1994). A process model of entrepreneurial venture creation. Journal of Business Venturing, 9(3), 223–242.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bikhchandani, S., Hirshleifer, D., & Welch, I. (1992). A theory of fads, fashion, custom, and cultural change as informational cascades. Journal of Political Economy, 100(5), 992–1026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bitektine, A. (2011). Toward a theory of social judgments of organizations: the case of legitimacy, reputation, and status. Academy of Management Review, 36(1), 151–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bloodgood, J. M., Sapienza, H. J., & Carsrud, A. L. (1995). The dynamics of new business start-ups: Person, context, and process. In J. A. Katz & R. H. Brockhaus (Eds.), Advances in entrepreneurship, firm emergence, and growth (pp. 123–144). Greenwich: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  15. Bloodgood, J. M., Sapienza, H. J., & Almeida, J. G. (1996). The internationalization of new high-potential U.S. ventures: Antecedents and outcomes. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 20(4), 61–76.Google Scholar
  16. Boeker, W. (1997). Strategic change: the influence of managerial characteristics and organizational growth. Academy of Management Journal, 40(1), 152–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Borgatti, S. P., & Foster, P. C. (2003). The network paradigm in organizational research: A review and typology. Journal of Management, 29(6), 991–1013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brass, D. J., & Burkhardt, M. E. (1992). Centrality and power in organizations. In N. Nohria & R. G. Eccles (Eds.), Networks and organizations (pp. 191–215). Boston: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
  19. Brass, D. J., Butterfield, K. D., & Skaggs, B. C. (1998). Relationships and unethical behavior: A social network perspective. Academy of Management Review, 23(1), 14–31.Google Scholar
  20. Brass, D. J., Galaskiewicz, J., Greve, H. R., & Tsai, W. (2004). Taking stock of networks and organizations: A multilevel perspective. Academy of Management Journal, 47(6), 795–817.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brettel, M., Strese, S., & Flatten, T. C. (2012). Improving the performance of business models with relationship marketing efforts—An entrepreneurial perspective. European Management Journal, 30, 85–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Broschak, J. P. (2004). Managers’ mobility and market interface: the effect of managers’ career mobility on the dissolution of market ties. Administrative Science Quarterly, 49, 608–640.Google Scholar
  23. Burt, R. S. (1980). Models of network structure. Annual Review of Sociology, 6, 79–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Burt, R. S. (1992). Structural holes. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Burt, R. S. (2005). Brokerage & closure. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Child, J. (1972). Organizational structure, environment, and performance: the role of strategic choice. Sociology, 6, 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Choi, Y. R., & Shepherd, D. A. (2004). Entrepreneurs’ decisions to exploit opportunities. Journal of Management, 30(3), 377–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Choi, Y. R., & Shepherd, D. A. (2005). Stakeholder perceptions of age and other dimensions of newness. Journal of Management, 31(4), 573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Christakis, N. A., & Fowler, J. H. (2007). The spread of obesity in a large social network over 32 years. New England Journal of Medicine, 357(4), 370–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Coleman, J. S. (1988). Social capital in the creation of human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94, S95–S120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Coleman, J. S., Katz, E., & Menzel, H. (1966). Medical innovation: A diffusion study. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill.Google Scholar
  32. D’Aunno, T., Succi, M., & Alexander, J. A. (2000). The role of institutional and market forces in divergent organizational change. Administrative Science Quarterly, 45, 679–703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dacin, M. T. (1997). Isomorphism in context: the power and prescription of institutional norms. Academy of Management Journal, 40(1), 46–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Dacin, M. T., Oliver, C., & Roy, J.-P. (2007). The legitimacy of strategic alliances: An institutional perspective. Strategic Management Journal, 28, 169–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. De Clercq, D., & Voronov, M. (2011). Sustainability in entrepreneurship: A tale of two logics. International Small Business Journal, 29(4), 322–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Deephouse, D. L. (1996). Does isomorphism legitimate? Academy of Management Journal, 39(4), 1024–1039.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Delmar, F., & Shane, S. (2004). Planning for the market: Business planning before marketing and the continuation of organizing efforts. Journal of Business Venturing, 19, 385–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. DiMaggio, P. J., & Powell, W. W. (1983). The iron cage revisited: Institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields. American Sociological Review, 48, 147–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Doh, J. P., Lawton, T. C., & Rajwani, T. (2012). Advancing nonmarket strategy research: Institutional perspectives in a changing world. Academy of Management Perspectives, 26(3), 22–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Drori, I., Honig, B., & Sheaffer, Z. (2009). The life cycle of an internet firm: Scripts, legitimacy, and identity. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 33, 715–738.Google Scholar
  41. Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Making fast strategic decisions in high-velocity environments. Academy of Management Journal, 32, 543–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Ferguson, N. M., et al. (2005). Strategies for containing an emerging influenza pandemic in Southeast Asia. Nature, 437(7056), 209–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Finne, M., & Holmström, J. (2013). A manufacturer moving upstream: Triadic collaboration for service delivery. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 18(1), 21–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Fisher, G., Kotha, S., & Lahiri, A. (2015). Changing with the times: An integrated view of identity, legitimacy, and new venture life cycles. Academy of Management Review, amr.2013.0496.Google Scholar
  45. Frazier, G. L., Maltz, E., Antia, K. D., & Rindfleisch, A. (2009). Distributor sharing of strategic information with suppliers. Journal of Marketing, 73, 31–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Freeman, L. C. (1979). Centrality in social networks: conceptual clarification. Social Networks, 1(3), 215–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Goldenberg, J., Han, S., Lehmann, D. R., & Hong, J. W. (2009). The role of hubs in the adoption process. Journal of Marketing, 73(2), 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Granovetter, M. S. (1973). The strength of weak ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78(6), 1360–1380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Green, S. E., Li, Y., & Nohria, N. (2009). Suspended in self-spun webs of significance: A rhetorical model of institutionalization and institutionally embedded agency. Academy of Management Journal, 52(1), 11–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Greenwood, R., & Hinings, C. R. (1996). Understanding radical organizational change: Bringing together the old and new institutionalism. Academy of Management Review, 21(4), 1022–1054.Google Scholar
  51. Greve, H. R. (1995). Jumping ship: The diffusion of strategy abandonment. Administrative Science Quarterly, 40, 444–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Greve, H. R. (1998). Performance, aspirations, and risky organizational change. Administrative Science Quarterly, 43, 58–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gulati, R., & Garguilo, M. (1999). Where do interorganizational networks come from? American Journal of Sociology, 104, 1439–1493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hanks, S. H., Watson, C. J., Jansen, E., & Chandler, G. N. (1993). Tightening the life-cycle construct: A taxonomic study of growth state configurations in high-technology organizations. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 18(2), 5–29.Google Scholar
  55. Hannan, M. T., & Freeman, J. (1984). Structural inertia and organizational change. American Sociological Review, 49, 149–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hansen, E. L. (1995). Entrepreneurial networks and new organization growth. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 19(4), 7–19.Google Scholar
  57. Hernandez-Ceron, N., Feng, Z., & Castillo-Chavez, C. (2013). Discrete epidemic models with arbitrary stage distributions and applications to disease control. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 75(10), 1716–1746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hethcote, H. W. (2009). The basic epidemiology models: models, expressions for R0, parameter estimation, and applications. Mathematical understanding of infectious disease dynamics, 16, 1–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hite, J. M. (2005). Evolutionary processes and paths of relationally embedded network ties in emerging entrepreneurial firms. Entrepreneurship. Theory Into Practice, 29(1), 113–144.Google Scholar
  60. Holt, R., & MacPherson, A. (2010). Sensemaking, rhetoric and the socially competent entrepreneur. International Small Business Journal, 28(1), 20–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hospers, G.-J., Desrochers, P., & Sautet, F. (2009). The next Silicon Valley? On the relationship between geographical clustering and public policy. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 5, 285–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Jensen, M. (2008). The use of relational discrimination to manage market entry: when do social status and structural holes work against you? Academy of Management Journal, 51(4), 723–743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Jones, S. R. G. (1984). The economics of conformism. New York: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  64. Kermack, W.O. & McKendrick, A.G. (1927). Contributions to the mathematical theory of epidemics. Proceedings of the Royal Society A, 115, 700; 138, 55; 141, 94.Google Scholar
  65. Khaire, M. (2010). Young and no money? Never mind: the material impact of social resources on new venture growth. Organization Science, 21(1), 168–185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Koppenjan, J., & Klijn, E. (2004). Managing uncertainties in networks. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  67. Kraatz, M. S. (1998). Learning by association? Interorganizational networks and adaptation to environmental change. Academy of Management Journal, 41(6), 621–643.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kumar, R., & Das, T. K. (2007). Interpartner legitimacy in the alliance development process. Journal of Management Studies, 44(8), 1425–1453.Google Scholar
  69. Leblebici, H., Salancik, G. R., Copay, A., & King, T. (1991). Institutional change and transformation of interorganizational fields: An organizational history of the U.S. radio broadcasting industry. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36, 333–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Mandják, T., Simon, J., & Szalkai, Z. (2011). A framework for the analysis of global, regional and local business networks. Industrial Marketing Management, 40, 822–829.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. March, J. G. (1981). Footnotes to organizational change. Administrative Science Quarterly, 26, 563–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Martinez, M. A., & Aldrich, H. E. (2011). Networking strategies for entrepreneurs: Balancing cohesion and diversity. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 17(1), 7–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Meyer, J. W., & Rowan, B. (1977). Institutionalized organizations: formal structure as myth and ceremony. American Journal of Sociology, 83, 340–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Meyers, L. A., Pourbohloul, B., Newman, M. E. J., Skowronski, D. M., & Brunham, R. C. (2005). Network theory and SARS: predicting outbreak diversity. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 232, 71–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Mors, M. L. (2010). Innovation in a global consulting firm when the problem is too much information. Strategic Management Journal, 31, 841–872.Google Scholar
  76. Nagy, B. G., Pollack, J. M., Rutherford, M. W., & Lohrke, F. T. (2012). The influence of entrepreneurs’ credentials and impression management behaviors on perceptions of new venture legitimacy. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 36(5), 941–965.Google Scholar
  77. Navis, C., & Glynn, M. A. (2010). How new market categories emerge: Temporal dynamics of legitimacy, identity, and entrepreneurship in satellite radio, 1990–2005. Administrative Science Quarterly, 55(3), 439–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Newbert, S. L., & Tornikoski, E. T. (2013). Resource acquisition in the emergence phase: cConsidering the effects of embeddedness and resource dependence. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 37(2), 249–280.Google Scholar
  79. Newman, M. E. J. (2005). A measure of betweenness centrality based on random walks. Social Networks, 27, 39–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Nigmatulina, K. R., & Larson, R. C. (2009). Living with influenza: Impacts of government imposed and voluntarily selected interventions. European Journal of Operational Research, 195, 613–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Obstfeld, D. (2005). Social networks, the tertius lungens orientation, and involvement in innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 50, 100–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Park, Y., Shin, J., & Kim, T. (2010). Firm size, age, industrial networking, and growth: A case of the Korean manufacturing industry. Small Business Economics, 35(2), 153–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Petkova, A. P., Rindova, V. P., & Gupta, A. K. (2013). No news is bad news: Sensegiving activities, media attention, and venture capital funding of new technology activities. Organization Science, 24(3), 865–888.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Pfeffer, J. M., & Salancik, G. R. (1978). The external control of organizations: a resource dependency perspective. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  85. Phillips, N., Lawrence, T. B., & Hardy, C. (2004). Discourse and institutions. Academy of Management Review, 29(4), 635–652.Google Scholar
  86. Pollack, J. M., & Bosse, D. A. (2014). When do investors forgive entrepreneurs for lying? Journal of Business Venturing, 29(6), 741–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Pollack, J. M., Rutherford, M. W., & Nagy, B. G. (2012). Preparedness and cognitive legitimacy as antecedents of new venture funding in televised business pitches. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 36(5), 915–939.Google Scholar
  88. Portes, A., & Sensenbrenner, J. (1993). Embeddedness and immigration: Notes on the social determinants of economic action. American Journal of Sociology, 98(6), 1320–1350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rao, R. S., Chandy, R. K., & Prabhu, J. C. (2008). The fruits of legitimacy: Why some new ventures gain more from innovation than others. Journal of Marketing, 72(4), 58–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Read, J. M., Eames, K. T. D., & Edmunds, W. J. (2008). Dynamic social networks and the implications for the spread of infectious disease. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 5(26), 1001–1007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Riley, S., Fraser, C., et al. (2003). Transmission dynamics of the etiological agent of SARS in Hong Kong: impact of public health interventions. Science, 300, 1961–1966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Ritter, T., Wilkinson, I. F., & Johnston, W. J. (2004). Managing in complex business networks. Industrial Marketing Management, 33, 175–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rogers, E. M. (1962). Diffusion of innovations. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  94. Rogers, E. M. (1983). Diffusion of innovations. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  95. Rogers, E. M. (1995). Diffusion of innovations. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  96. Rogers, E. M., & Schoemaker, F. F. (1971). Communication of innovations: a cultural approach. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  97. Romanelli, E. (1989). Environments and strategies of organization start-up: effects on early survival. Administrative Science Quarterly, 34, 369–387.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Rutherford, M. W., & Buller, P. F. (2007). Searching for the legitimacy threshold. Journal of Management Inquiry, 16(1), 78–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Rutherford, M.W., Buller, P.F. & Stebbins, J.M. (2009). Ethical considerations of the legitimacy lie. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, July, 949–964.Google Scholar
  100. Schelling, T. C. (1978). Micromotives and macrobehavior. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  101. Scott, J. (1991). Social network analysis: a handbook. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  102. Scott, W. R. (1995). Institutions and organizations. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  103. Seabright, M. A., Levinthal, D. A., & Fichman, M. (1992). Role of individual attachments in the dissolution of interorganizational relationships. Academy of Management Journal, 35, 122–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Seo, M., & Creed, W. E. D. (2002). Institutional contradictions, praxis, and institutional change: A dialectical perspective. Academy of Management Review, 27(2), 222–247.Google Scholar
  105. Shane, S., & Cable, D. (2002). Network ties, reputation, and the financing of new ventures. Management Science, 48, 364–381.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Soh, P. (2010). Network patterns and competitive advantage before the emergence of a dominant design. Strategic Management Journal, 31, 438–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Starr, J. A., & MacMillan, I. C. (1990). Resource cooptation via social contracting: Resource acquisition strategies for new ventures. Strategic Management Journal, 11, 79–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Stinchcombe, A. L. (1965). Social structure and organizations. In J. G. March (Ed.), Handbook of organizations (pp. 142–193). Chicago: Rand McNally.Google Scholar
  109. Strang, D., & Meyer, J. W. (1994). Institutional conditions for diffusion. In W. R. Scott & J. W. Meyer (Eds.), Institutional environments and organizations (pp. 100–112). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  110. Stuart, T. E., & Sorenson, O. (2007). Strategic networks and entrepreneurial ventures. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 1, 211–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Suchman, M. (1995). Managing legitimacy: strategic and institutional approaches. Academy of Management Review, 20, 571–610.Google Scholar
  112. Tornikoski, E. T., & Newbert, S. L. (2007). Exploring the determinants of organizational emergence: A legitimacy perspective. Journal of Business Venturing, 22(2), 311–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Tost, L. P. (2011). An integrative model of legitimacy judgments. Academy of Management Review, 36(4), 686–710.Google Scholar
  114. Tushman, M. L., & Anderson, P. (1986). Technological discontinuities and organizational environments. Administrative Science Quarterly, 31, 439–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Überbacher, F. (2014). Legitimation of new ventures: A review and research programme. The Journal of Management Studies, 51(4), 667–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Valente, T. W., & Davis, R. L. (1999). Accelerating the diffusion of innovations using opinion leaders. Annals of the AAPSS, 566, 55–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Venkatraman, N., & Camillus, J. C. (1984). Exploring the concept of fit in strategic management. Academy of Management Review, 9, 513–525.Google Scholar
  118. Voronov, M., De Clercq, D., & Hinings, C. R. (2013). Conformity and distinctiveness in a global institutional framework: The legitimation of Ontario fine wine. Journal of Management Studies, 50, 607–645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Weber, M. (1947). The theory of social and economic organization. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  120. Weber, M. (1978). In G. Roth & C. Wittich (Eds.), Economy and society: An outline of interpretive sociology. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  121. Weick, K. E. (1979). The social psychology of organizing. New York. NY: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  122. Welter, F., & Kautonen, T. (2005). Trust, social networks and enterprise development: exploring evidence from east and West Germany. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 1, 367–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Wong, S., & Boh, W. F. (2010). Leveraging the ties of others to build a reputation for trustworthiness among peers. Academy of Management Journal, 53(1), 129–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Wu, T., Daniel, E. M., Hinton, M., & Quintas, P. (2013). Isomorphic mechanisms in manufacturing supply chains: A comparison of indigenous Chinese firms and foreign-owned MNCs. Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, 18(2), 161–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Zimmerman, M. A., & Zeitz, G. J. (2002). Beyond survival: Achieving new venture growth by building legitimacy. Academy of Management Review, 27(3), 414–431.Google Scholar
  126. Zott, C., & Huy, Q. N. (2007). How entrepreneurs use symbolic management to acquire resources. Administrative Science Quarterly, 52(1), 70–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Zucker, L. G. (1987). Institutional theories of organization. Annual Review of Sociology, 13, 443–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Zuckerman, E. W. (1999). The categorical imperative: securities analysts and the illegitimacy discount. American Journal of Sociology, 104, 1398–1438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • James M. Bloodgood
    • 1
    Email author
  • Jeffrey S. Hornsby
    • 2
  • Matthew Rutherford
    • 3
  • Richard G. McFarland
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Management, College of Business AdministrationManhattanUSA
  2. 2.Department of Global Entrepreneurship and Innovation, Henry W. Bloch School of ManagementUniversity of Missouri–Kansas CityKansas CityUSA
  3. 3.School of EntrepreneurshipOklahoma State UniversityStillwaterUSA
  4. 4.Department of MarketingESSEC Business SchoolCergy Pontoise CedexFrance

Personalised recommendations