Advertisement

Innovation and entrepreneurship in the academic setting: a systematic literature review

  • Ademar SchmitzEmail author
  • David Urbano
  • Gertrudes Aparecida Dandolini
  • João Artur de Souza
  • Maribel Guerrero
Article

Abstract

In the knowledge society, universities have assumed new missions and relations in order to contribute to economic and social development, while preserving their own sustainability. This article aims to explore scientific literature on innovation and entrepreneurship in the academic setting, describing how the field is organized, main terms and definitions, theoretical frameworks, and empirical models, in order to direct future research. A systematic literature review was conducted, in which articles indexed at Web of Science were initially submitted to a bibliometric analysis. Then, the content of a set of articles best fitting the objectives of the study was analyzed. Bibliometric analysis shows an increasing literature, with publications over more than 40 years. There are studies from many disciplines, with those in business and economics prevailing, mainly related to management and originating from the USA and Europe. Content analysis shows a fragmented literature, with definitions not showing a clear relationship between innovation and entrepreneurship, or their use within universities in coherence with their traditional definitions. Both theoretical frameworks and empirical models are very heterogeneous, but four groups of studies were identified based on their theoretical frameworks, and also based on their empirical models. With only a few exceptions, empirical models do not share many components and variables, and there are no clear boundaries between the different models. Despite the increasing literature, it is still fragmented and undertheorized, requiring more systematic and holistic studies, considering both the economic and the social aspects of innovation and entrepreneurship within universities.

Keywords

Academic innovation Academic entrepreneurship Innovative university Entrepreneurial university Innovation and entrepreneurship University 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The first author acknowledges financial support of UNIEDU/FUMDES, FAPESC (TO 2015TR298) and UNISUL during the research that resulted in this article.

References

  1. Abreu, M., & Grinevich, V. (2013). The nature of academic entrepreneurship in the UK: widening the focus on entrepreneurial activities. Research Policy, 42(2), 408–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Audretsch, D. B. (2014). From the entrepreneurial university to the university for the entrepreneurial society. Journal of Technology Transfer, 39(3), 313–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brazeal, D. V., & Herbert, T. T. (1999). The genesis of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 23(3), 29–45.Google Scholar
  4. Brem, A. (2011). Linking innovation and entrepreneurship: literature overview and introduction of a process-oriented framework. International Journal of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Management, 14(1), 6–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chang, Y. C., Chen, M. H., Hua, M., & Yang, P. Y. (2006). Managing academic innovation in Taiwan: towards a “scientific-economic” framework. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 73(2), 199–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Clark, B. R. (1996). Substantive growth and innovative organization: new categories for higher education research. Higher Education, 32(4), 417–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Clark, B. R. (1998). Creating entrepreneurial universities: organizational pathways of transformation. Oxford: Pergamon-Elsevier Science.Google Scholar
  8. Conklin, G. H. (1978). Frustration of academic innovation: can new teaching techniques survive in academic marketplace. Teaching Sociology, 5(2), 125–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Crossan, M. M., & Apaydin, M. (2010). A multi-dimensional framework of organizational innovation: a systematic review of the literature. Journal of Management Studies, 47(6), 1154–1191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Doutriaux, J. (1987). Growth pattern of academic entrepreneurial firms. Journal of Business Venturing, 2(4), 285–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Drucker, P. F. (2006). Innovation and entrepreneurship – practice and principles. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  12. Estabrooks, C. A., Winther, C., & Derksen, L. (2004). Mapping the field: a bibliometric analysis of the research utilization literature in nursing. Nursing Research, 53(5), 293–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Etzkowitz, H. (1984). Entrepreneurial scientists and entrepreneurial universities in American academic science. Minerva, 21(2–3), 198–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Etzkowitz, H. (1998). The norms of entrepreneurial science: cognitive effects of the new university-industry linkages. Research Policy, 27(8), 823–833.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Etzkowitz, H. (2003a). Innovation in innovation: the triple helix of university-industry-government relations. Social Science Information, 42(3), 293–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Etzkowitz, H. (2003b). Research groups as “quasi-firms”: the invention of the entrepreneurial university. Research Policy, 32(1), 109–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Etzkowitz, H. (2013). Anatomy of the entrepreneurial university. Social Science Information, 52(3), 486–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Etzkowitz, H., Webster, A., Gebhardt, C., & Terra, B. R. C. (2000). The future of the university and the university of the future: evolution of ivory tower to entrepreneurial paradigm. Research Policy, 29(2), 313–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Goldstein, H. A. (2010). The “entrepreneurial turn” and regional economic development mission of universities. Annals of Regional Science, 44(1), 83–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Guenther, J., & Wagner, K. (2008). Getting out of the ivory tower: new perspectives on the entrepreneurial university. European Journal of International Management, 2(4), 400–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Guerrero, M., & Urbano, D. (2012). The development of an entrepreneurial university. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 37(1), 43–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Guerrero, M., Urbano, D., Cunningham, J., & Organ, D. (2014). Entrepreneurial universities in two European regions: a case study comparison. The Journal of Technology Transfer, 39, 415–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Guerrero, M., Cunningham, J., & Urbano, D. (2015). Economic impact of entrepreneurial universities’ activities: an exploratory study of the United Kingdom. Research Policy, 44(3), 748–764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hawkins, D. T. (1997). Unconventional uses of on-line information retrieval systems: on-line bibliometric studies. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 28, 13–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jacob, M., Lundqvist, M., & Hellsmark, H. (2003). Entrepreneurial transformations in the Swedish university system: the case of Chalmers University of Technology. Research Policy, 32(9), 1555–1568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Keupp, M. M., Palmie, M., & Gassmann, O. (2012). The strategic management of innovation: a systematic review and paths for future research. International Journal of Management Reviews, 14(4), 367–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kirby, D. A., Guerrero, M., & Urbano, D. (2011). Making universities more entrepreneurial: development of a model. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 28(3), 302–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Klofsten, M., & Jones-Evans, D. (2000). Comparing academic entrepreneurship in Europe: the case of Sweden and Ireland. Small Business Economics, 14(4), 299–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Landström, H., Åström, F., & Harirchi, G. (2015). Innovation and entrepreneurship studies: one or two fields of research? International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 11(3), 493–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Liñán, F., & Fayolle, A. (2015). A systematic literature review on entrepreneurial intentions: citation, thematic analyses, and research agenda. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 11(4), 907–933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lindquist, J. (1974). Political linkage: academic innovation process. Journal of Higher Education, 45(5), 323–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mainardes, E. W., Alves, H., & Raposo, M. (2011). The process of change in university management: from the “ivory tower” to entrepreneurialism. Transylvanian Review of Administrative Sciences, 33, 124–149.Google Scholar
  33. Mars, M. M., & Rios-Aguilar, C. (2010). Academic entrepreneurship (re)defined: significance and implications for the scholarship of higher education. Higher Education, 59(4), 441–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Mary George, N., Parida, V., Lahti, T., & Wincent, J. (2014). A systematic literature review of entrepreneurial opportunity recognition: insights on influencing factors. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 1–42.Google Scholar
  35. Mazdeh, M. M., Razavi, S. M., Hesamamiri, R., Zahedi, M. R., & Elahi, B. (2013). An empirical investigation of entrepreneurship intensity in Iranian state universities. Higher Education, 65(2), 207–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nelles, J., & Vorley, T. (2011). Entrepreneurial architecture: a blueprint for entrepreneurial universities. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 28(3), 341–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. O’Shea, R. P., Allen, T. J., Chevalier, A., & Roche, F. (2005). Entrepreneurial orientation, technology transfer and spinoff performance of U.S. Universities. Research Policy, 34(7), 994–1009.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Philpott, K., Dooley, L., O’Reilly, C., & Lupton, G. (2011). The entrepreneurial university: examining the underlying academic tensions. Technovation, 31(4), 161–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Ross, R. D. (1976). Institutionalization of academic innovations: 2 models. Sociology of Education, 49(2), 146–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Rothaermel, F. T., Agung, S. D., & Jiang, L. (2007). University entrepreneurship: a taxonomy of the literature. Industrial and Corporate Change, 16(4), 691–791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Sam, C., & van der Sijde, P. (2014). Understanding the concept of the entrepreneurial university from the perspective of higher education models. Higher Education, 68(6), 891–908.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Schachter, H. L. (1986). State coordinating agencies and academic innovation: a policy sector perspective. Higher Education, 15(3–4), 333–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Schumpeter, J. (1934). The theory of economic development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Thomas, J., Harden, A., Oakley, A., Oliver, S., Sutcliffe, K., Rees, R., Brunton, G., & Kavanagh, J. (2004). Integrating qualitative research with trials in systematic reviews. British Medical Journal, 328, 1010–1012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Tijssen, R. J. W. (2006). Universities and industrially relevant science: towards measurement models and indicators of entrepreneurial orientation. Research Policy, 35(10), 1569–1585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Todorovic, Z. W., McNaughton, R. B., & Guild, P. (2011). ENTRE-U: an entrepreneurial orientation scale for universities. Technovation, 31(2–3), 128–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tranfield, D., Denyer, D., & Smart, P. (2003). Towards a methodology for developing evidence-informed management knowledge by means of systematic review. British Journal of Management, 14, 207–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Urbano, D., & Guerrero, M. (2013). Entrepreneurial universities: socioeconomic impacts of academic entrepreneurship in a European region. Economic Development Quarterly, 27(1), 40–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. van Vught, F. (1999). Innovative universities. Tertiary Education and Management, 5(4), 347–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wellens, L., & Jegers, M. (2014). Effective governance in nonprofit organizations: a literature based multiple stakeholder approach. European Management Journal, 32(2), 223–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Wood, M. S. (2011). A process model of academic entrepreneurship. Business Horizons, 54(2), 153–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wright, M. (2014). Academic entrepreneurship, technology transfer and society: where next? Journal of Technology Transfer, 39(3), 322–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Yokoyama, K. (2006). Entrepreneurialism in Japanese and UK universities: governance, management, leadership, and funding. Higher Education, 52(3), 523–555.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Yusof, M., & Jain, K. K. (2010). Categories of university-level entrepreneurship: a literature survey. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 6(1), 81–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zhao, F. (2005). Exploring the synergy between entrepreneurship and innovation. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior and Research, 11(1), 25–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ademar Schmitz
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • David Urbano
    • 3
  • Gertrudes Aparecida Dandolini
    • 2
  • João Artur de Souza
    • 2
  • Maribel Guerrero
    • 4
  1. 1.Universidade do Sul de Santa CatarinaTubarãoBrazil
  2. 2.Universidade Federal de Santa CatarinaFlorianópolisBrazil
  3. 3.Universitat Autònoma de BarcelonaBarcelonaSpain
  4. 4.Deusto Business SchoolUniversity of DeustoDonostiaSpain

Personalised recommendations