Advertisement

Core entrepreneurial competencies and their interdependencies: insights from a study of Irish and Iranian entrepreneurs, university students and academics

  • Morteza RezaeiZadeh
  • Michael Hogan
  • John O’Reilly
  • James Cunningham
  • Eamonn Murphy
Article

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to advance our understanding of core entrepreneurial competencies and their interdependencies. Developing entrepreneurial competencies is increasingly seen as important to foster entrepreneurship. Studies to date have highlighted different entrepreneurial competencies in the context of different sectors, regions and countries. However, there has been a lack of consensus in relation to the perceived relative importance of core entrepreneurial competences and their interdependencies among students, academic and entrepreneurs. Our paper focuses on two key questions: first, what are the core entrepreneurial competencies that need to be developed in educational contexts? Second, what are the interdependencies between these entrepreneurial competencies that need to be developed in educational contexts? Using a collective intelligence methodology a comparative study of Iran and Ireland was undertaken that involved three stakeholder groups of students, academics and entrepreneurs. This methodology was used to identify, rank, and structure entrepreneurial competencies considered important for university students. The results of the study indicated that productive thinking, motivation, interpersonal skills and leadership are core entrepreneurial competences that need to be developed in educational contexts. Findings also highlight critical interdependencies between entrepreneurial competencies and the relative influence of different competencies across groups and regions. We outline the implications of our findings for designing a curriculum for improving students’ entrepreneurial competencies.

Keyword

Entrepreneurial competencies Entrepreneurship Interactive management (IM) Cross-cultural 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors of this paper wish to thank Mr Michael Hennessy, Education Programmes Manager of Enterprise Research Centre, University of Limerick, Ireland, as well as Mr Mohsen Ansari, Senior Researcher at University of Tehran, Iran, for their kind attention and supports in organising the five IM sessions which have been conducted by this study.

References

  1. Ackoff, R. L. (1981). Creating the corporate future: Plan or be planned for. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  2. Ahmad, N. H. (2007). A cross cultural study of entrepreneurial competencies and entrepreneurial success in SMEs in Australia and Malaysia.Google Scholar
  3. Alberts, H. (1992, March). Acquisition: Past, present and future. Paper presented at the meeting of the Institute of Management Sciences and Operations Research Society, Orlando, FLGoogle Scholar
  4. Alder, D. D. (1991). In K. R. Stadler (Ed.), Sozialistenprozesse. Politische Justiz in Österreich 1870–1936 (pp. 528). Vienna: Europaverlag, 1986. Austrian History Yearbook, 22, 202–204.Google Scholar
  5. Argyris, C. (1982). Reasoning, learning, and action: Individual and organizational. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  6. Ashby, W. R. (1958). Requisite variety and its implications for the control of complex systems. Cybernetica, 1(2), 1–17.Google Scholar
  7. Badri, E., Liaghatdar, M. J., Abedi, M. R., & Jafari, E. (2006). A survey of entrepreneurship capabilities of Isfahan University Students. Journal of Research and Planning In Higher Education, 40, 73–90.Google Scholar
  8. Barkham, R. J. (1994). Entrepreneurial characteristics and the size of the new firm: a model and an econometric test. Small Business Economics, 6, 117–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Baron, R. A. (2007). Behavioral and cognitive factors in entrepreneurship: entrepreneurs as the active element in new venture creation. Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, 1(1–2), 167–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baum, J. R., & Locke, E. A. (2004). The relationship of entrepreneurial traits, skills, and motivation to subsequent venture growth. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(4), 587–598.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baum, J. R., Locke, E. A., & Smith, K. G. (2001). A multidimensional model of ventureGoogle Scholar
  12. Bayliss, D. (2004). Creative planning in Ireland: the role of culture-led development in Irish planning. European Planning Studies, 12(4), 497–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Béchard, J. P., & Grégoire, D. (2005). Entrepreneurship education research revisited: the case of higher education. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 4(1), 22–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Berber, S. (2013). Effects of UN Sanctions on Iranian Economy. Wise men centre for strategic studies. Retrieved on 09th July 2013 at http://www.bilgesam.org/en/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=570:effects-of-un-sanctions-on-iranian-economy-&catid=77:ortadogu-analizler&Itemid=147.
  15. Bergevoet, R. H. M., & Woerkum, C. V. (2006). Improving the entrepreneurial competencies of Dutch dairy farmers through the use of study groups. Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, 12(1), 25–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bird, B. (1995). Towards a theory of entrepreneurial competency. Advances in Entrepreneurship, Firm Emergence and Growth, 2, 51–72.Google Scholar
  17. Blank, S. (2013). Why the lean start-up changes everything. Harvard Business Review, 91(5), 63–71.Google Scholar
  18. Boojihawon, D. K., Dimitratos, P., & Young, S. (2007). Characteristics and influences of multinational subsidiary entrepreneurial culture: the case of the advertising sector. International Business Review, 16, 549–572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Boulding, K. E. (1966). The impact of the social sciences. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  20. Brockhaus, R. H. (1980). Risk taking propensity of entrepreneurs. Academy of Management Journal, 23(3), 509–520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Broome, B. J. (1995a). Collective design of the future: structural analysis of tribal vision statements. American Indian Quarterly, 19, 205–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Broome, B. (1995b). The role of facilitated group process in community-based planning and design: Promoting greater participation in Comanche tribal governance. In L. R. Frey (Ed.), Innovations in group facilitation: Applications in natural settings (pp. 27–52). Cresskill: Hampton Press.Google Scholar
  23. Broome, B. J., & Chen, M. (1992). Guidelines for computer-assisted group problem-solving: meeting the challenges of complex issues. Small Group Research, 23(2), 216–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Broome, B. J., & Christakis, A. N. (1988). A culturally-sensitive approach to tribal governance issue management. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 12, 107–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Broome, B. J., & Cromer, I. L. (1991). Strategic planning for tribal economic development: a culturally appropriate model for consensus building. International Journal of Conflict Management, 2, 217–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Broome, B. J., & Fulbright, L. (1995). A multi-stage influence model of barriers to group problem solving. Small Group Research, 26, 25–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Burgoyne, J. G. (1993). The competence movement: issues, stakeholders and prospects. Personnel Review, 22(6), 6–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Byrne, J. (2010). Corporate entrepreneurship training: A routine inquiry. In A. Fayolle (Ed.), Handbook of research in entrepreneurship education (Vol. 3, pp. 297–312). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  29. Carland, J. W., Hoy, F., Boulton, W. R., & Carland, J. A. C. (2007). Differentiating entrepreneurs from small business owners: A conceptualization. In Á. Cuervo, D. Ribeiro, & R. Salvador (Eds.), Entrepreneurship: Concepts, theory and perspective (pp. 73–81). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  30. Chandler, G. N., & Hanks, S. H. (1994). Founder competence, the environment and venture performance. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 18, 77.Google Scholar
  31. Chandler, G. N., & Jansen, E. (1992). The founder’s self-assessed competence and venture performance. Journal of Business Venturing, 7(3), 223–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Chang, N. (2010). Using structural equation modelling to test the validity of interactive management. Western Political Science Association 2010 Annual Meeting Paper. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1580590.
  33. Christakis, A. N. (1987). Correspondence: systems profiles. Systems Research, 4(1), 53–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cinneida, B. O., & Henry, C. (2007). Entrepreneurship features of creative industries: The Irish music and dance sector. In C. Henry (Ed.), Entrepreneurship in the creative industries: An international perspective (pp. 72–87). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  35. Cleveland, H. (1973). The decision makers. Center Magazine, 6(5), 9–18.Google Scholar
  36. Coke, J. G., & Moore, C. M. (1981). Coping with a budgetary crisis: Helping a city council decide where expenditure cuts should be made. Building city council leadership skills: A casebook of models and methods 72–85.Google Scholar
  37. Collins, O. F., & Moore, D. G. (1964). The enterprising man (Vol. 1). Michigan State Univ Pr.Google Scholar
  38. Cooney, T. M, & Murray, T. (2008). Entrepreneurship education in the third level section in Ireland. Institute for Minority Entrepreneurship, Dubin Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
  39. Cope, J., & Watts, G. (2000). Learning by doing–an exploration of experience, critical incidents and reflection in entrepreneurial learning. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 6(3), 104–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Crandall, V. C. & McGhee, P. E., (1968). Expectancy of reinforcement and academic competence1. Journal of Personality, 36(4), 635–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Czuchry, A., Yasin, M., & Gonzales, M. (2004). Effective entrepreneurial education: a framework for innovation and implementation. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 7(1), 39–56.Google Scholar
  42. Dawson, C., & Henley, A. (2012). “Push” versus “pull” entrepreneurship: an ambiguous distinction? International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 18(6), 697–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Deakins, D., & Whittam, G. (2000). Business start-up: theory, practice and policy. In S. Carter & D. Jones-Evans(Eds.), Enterprise and small business, principles practice and policy. Pearson Education.Google Scholar
  44. Deal, T. E., & Kennedy, A. A. (1982). Corporate cultures: The rites and rituals of corporate life. Reading: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  45. Delbeq, A. L., Van De Ven, A. H., & Gustafson, D. H. (1975). Group techniques for program planning: A guide to nominal group and Delphi processes. Glenview: Scott, Foresman.Google Scholar
  46. Dhliwayo, S. (2008). Experiential learning in entrepreneurship education: a prospective model for South African tertiary institutions. Education + Training, 50(4), 329–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Duchéneaut, B., & Orhan, M. (2000). Les femmes entrepreneurs en France, Percée des femmes dans un monde construit au masculin. Paris: Editions Seli Arslan.Google Scholar
  48. Dwyer, C. P., Hogan, M. J., Harney, O. M., & O’Reilly, J. (2014). Using interactive management to facilitate a student-centred conceptualisation of critical thinking: a case study. Educational Technology Research and Development, 62(6), 687–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Feeg, R. (1988). Forum of the future of pediatric nursing: looking toward the 21st century. Pediatric Nursing, 14, 393–396.Google Scholar
  50. Filatotchev, I., Chahine, S., Wright, M., & Arberk, M. (2005). Founders’ characteristics, venture capital syndication and governance in entrepreneurial IPOs. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 1, 419–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Fooladi, B., & Spence, M. (2009). Iran. In L.-P. Dana, M. Han, V. Ratten, & I. M. Welpe (Eds.), Handbook of research on Asian entrepreneurship (pp. 104–111). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  52. Gable, R. W. (1959). Culture and administration in Iran. Middle East Journal, 13(4), 407–421.Google Scholar
  53. Garcia-Morales, V. J., Lloréns-Montes, F. J., & Verdú-Jover, A. J. (2007). Influence of personal mastery on organizational performance through organizational learning and innovation in large firms and SMEs. Technovation, 27, 547–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gartner, W. B. (1984). In J. A. Hornaday, F. Tarpley, J. A. Timmons, & K. H. Vesper (Eds.), Problems in business start-up: The relationships among entrepreneurial skills and problem identification for different types of new ventures (pp. 496–512). Wellesley: Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research Babson College.Google Scholar
  55. Gasse, Y., & d’Amboise, G. (1997). Entrepreneurial-managerial competencies and practices of growing SMEs. In Proceedings of the CCSBE/CCPME Conference (pp. 137–47). Vancouver.Google Scholar
  56. Gately, C., & Cunningham, J. A. (2014a). The contributions and disconnections between writing a business plan and the start-up process for incubator technology entrepreneurs, academic entrepreneurships creating an entrepreneurial ecosystem in advances in entrepreneurship, firms emergence and growth. 16, 197–240.Google Scholar
  57. Gately, C., & Cunningham, J. (2014a). Building intellectual capital in incubated firms. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 15(4), 516–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. GEM (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor). (2000). Global entrepreneurship monitor 2000 global report. Downloaded at http://www.gemconsortium.org/report on 25/01/2015.
  59. GEM (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor). (2012). Global entrepreneurship monitor 2012 global report. Downloaded at http://www.gemconsortium.org/report on 25/01/2015.
  60. GEM (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor). (2013). Global entrepreneurship monitor 2013 global report. Downloaded at http://www.gemconsortium.org/report on 25/01/2015.
  61. GEM Iran report. (2012). Global entrepreneurship monitor 2012 Iran report. Downloaded at http://www.gemconsortium.org/country-profile/71 on 15/01/2015.
  62. Gholipor, R., Aghajani, H., Karimi, K., & Ali, M. (2009). Survey of a model for capital structure in family- based businesses (Covering oil and textile industries). Journal of Entrepreneurship Development, 3, 123–158.Google Scholar
  63. Ghoshal, S. (1997). The individualized corporation: an interview with Sumantra Ghoshal. European Management Journal, 15(6), 625–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Green, W. S. (2009). From commerce to culture: Entrepreneurship in the mainstream. In G. Page West, E. J. Gatewood, & K. G. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of university-wide entrepreneurship education (pp. 15–20). Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  65. Groarke, J. M., & Hogan, M. J. (2015). Enhancing wellbeing: an emerging model of the adaptive functions of music listening. Psychology of Music. doi: 10.1177/0305735615591844.Google Scholar
  66. Guerrero, M., Urbano, D., Cunningham, J., & Organ, D. (2014). Entrepreneurial Universities in two European Regions: a case study comparision of their conditioning factors, outcomes and outputs. Journal of Technology Transfer, 39(3), 415–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hackman, J. R., & Oldham, G. R. (1976). Motivation through the design of work: test of a theory. Organ Behav Hum Perform, 16(2), 250–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Haglind, D. (2004). Coping with success and failure – Among Swedish and Portuguese track and field athletes and coaches. European Master uppsats i idrottspsykologi (pp. 61–80). Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle. Högskolan i Halmstad.Google Scholar
  69. Hannafey, F. T. (2003). Entrepreneurship and ethics: a literature review. Journal of Business Ethics, 46(2), 99–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hayton, J. C., & McEvoy, M. (2006). Guest editor’s note. Human Resource Management, 45(3), 291–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Herron, L., & Robinson, R. B. (1993). A structural model of the effects of entrepreneurial characteristics on venture performance. Journal of Business Venturing, 8(3), 281–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Hogan, M. J., Harney O., & Broome, B. (2014a). A proposal for systems science education. In R. Wegerif, J. Kaufman, L. Li (Eds), The Routledge handbook of research on teaching thinking.Google Scholar
  73. Hogan, M. J., Harney O., & Broome, B. (2014b). Integrating argument mapping with systems thinking tools – Advancing applied systems science. In A. Okada, S. Buckingham Shum & T. Sherborne (Eds.), Knowledge cartography: Software tools and mapping techniques. Springer: Advanced Information and Knowledge Processing Series.Google Scholar
  74. Hogan, M. J., Johnston, H., Broome, B., McMoreland, C., Walsh, J., Smale, B., Duggan, J., Andriessen, J., Leydon, K. M., Domegan, C., McHugh, P., Hogan, V., Harney, O., Groarke, J., Noone, C., & Groarke, A. (2015). Consulting with citizens in the design of wellbeing measures and policies: lessons from a systems science application. Social Indicators Research, 123, 857–887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Hormiga, E., Batista-Canino, R. M., & Sánchez-Medina, A. (2011). The role of intellectual capital in the success of new ventures. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 7(1), 71–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Humbert, A. L., Drew, E., & Kelan, E. (2010). Gender identity and ICT entrepreneurship in an Irish context. In A. Malach-Pines & M. F. Ozbilgin (Eds.), Handbook of research on high-technology entrepreneurs (pp. 123–141). UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  77. Hynes, B., & Richardson, I. (2007). Entrepreneurship education: a mechanism for engaging and exchanging with the small business sector. Education + Training, 49(8/9), 732–744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Hynes, B., O’Dwyer, M., & Birdthistle, N. (2009). Entrepreneurship education: meeting the skills needs of graduates in Ireland. In G. Page West, E. J. Gatewood, & K. G. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of university-wide entrepreneurship education (pp. 95–106). Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  79. Iranian ministry of Education. (2012). The Iranian National curriculum policy. Tehran (Persian Language).Google Scholar
  80. Irish Department of Education and Science. (2004). A brief description of the Irish Education System. Dublin: Communications Unit. Retrieved at http://www.education.ie/en/Publications/Education-Reports/A-Brief-Description-of-the-Irish-Education-System.pdf on 05th August 2013.
  81. Izquierdo, E., & Deschoolmeester, D. (2010). What entrepreneurial competencies should be emphasized in entrepreneurship and innovation education at the undergraduate level? In A. Fayolle (Ed.), Handbook of research in entrepreneurship education, volume 3 (pp. 194–206). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  82. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1989). Cooperation and competition: Theory and research. Interaction Book Company.Google Scholar
  83. Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1999). Making cooperative learning work. Theory Into Practice, 38(2), 67–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Keever, D. B. (1989, April). Cultural complexities in the participative design of a computer-based organization information system. Paper presented at the International Conference on Support, Society and Culture: Mutual Uses of Cybernetics and Science, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.Google Scholar
  85. Kellermanns, F. W., Kellermanns, F. W., Eddleston, K. A., Barnett, T., & Pearson, A. (2008). An exploratory study of family member characteristics and involvement: Effects on entrepreneurial behaviour in the family firm. Family Business Review, XXI, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Kemeny, J. (1980). Saving American democracy: the lesson of three mile island. Technology Review, 83(7), 64–75.Google Scholar
  87. Kenny, A., Larkin, C., MacSíthigh, D., & Thijssen, J. (2009). Irish education policy for a globalised world: A policy for chasing black & white swans. Dublin: The Swan Group.Google Scholar
  88. Keogh, B. (2006). Book review: the e factor: entrepreneurial competencies for personal and business success. International Small Business Journal, 24(5), 547–551.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Kiggundu, M. N., Jorgenson, J. J., & Hafsi, T. (1983). Administrative theory and practice in developing countries. Administrative Science Quarterly, 28, 66–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Kilby, P. (1971). Entrepreneurship and economic development. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
  91. Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development (Vol. 1). Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  92. Kordnaeij, A., Zali, M. R., Hooman, H., & Shams, S. (2007). Measurement instrument of personality characteristics of Iranian’s entrepreneurs. Tehran: Tarbiat modares university press.Google Scholar
  93. Kropp, F., & Zolin, R. (2005). Technological entrepreneurship and small business innovation research programs. Academy of Marketing Science Review, 2005(7).Google Scholar
  94. Kumara, S. A. V., & Sahasranam, C. (2009). Entrepreneurial characteristics among business management students: an empirical study. The Icfaian Journal of Management Research, 8, 7–29.Google Scholar
  95. Lambert, R. (2003). Lambert review of business-university collaboration: Final report. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign's Academy for Entrepreneurial Leadership Historical Research Reference in Entrepreneurship.Google Scholar
  96. Lans, T., & Gulikers, J. (2010). Assessing entrepreneurial competence in entrepreneurship education and training. In A. Fayolle (Ed.), Handbook of research in entrepreneurship education, volume 3 (pp. 54–67). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  97. Lau, T., Chan, K. F., & Man, T. W. Y. (1999). The competitiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises; a conceptualization with focus on entrepreneurial competencies. Journal of Business Venturing, 17(2), 123–142.Google Scholar
  98. Lee, S. H., & Wong, P. K. (2004). An exploratory study of Technopreneurial intentions: a career anchor perspective. Journal of Business Venturing, 19, 7–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Lee, S. M., Hwang, T., & Choi, D. (2012). Open innovation in the public sector of leading countries. Management Decision, 50(1), 147–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Leko-Šimić, M., Horvat, J., & Forjan, J. (2007). Entrepreneurial characteristics of Croatian exporters. Seventh International Conference on “Enterprise in Transition”, Session II-2: 1–9.Google Scholar
  101. Li, D. D., Feng, J., & Jiang, H. (2006). Institutional entrepreneurs. The American Economic Review, 358–362.Google Scholar
  102. Low, L. (2005). Entrepreneurship development in Ireland and Singapore. Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, 10(1), 116–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Luthans, F., & Ibrayeva, E. S. (2006). Entrepreneurial self-efficacy in Central Asian transition economies: quantitative and qualitative analyses. Journal of International Business Studies, 37(1), 92–110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Maani, K. E., & Cavana, R. Y. (2000). Systems thinking and modelling: Understanding change and complexity. Auckland: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  105. Man, T. W., & Lau, T. (2000). Entrepreneurial competencies of SME owner/managers in the Hong Kong services sector: A qualitative analysis. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 8(03), 235--254Google Scholar
  106. Mac Sharry, R., White, P. A., & O’Malley, J. J. (2000). The making of the Celtic tiger: The inside story of Ireland’s boom economy. Mercier Press.Google Scholar
  107. Mahdavi Mazdeh, M., Razavi, S.-M., Hesamamiri, R., Zahedi, M.-R., Elahi, B. (2012). An empirical investigation of entrepreneurship intensity in Iranian state universities. High Educ, Retrieved online at http://www.springerlink.com/content/8560l3380117pg66/fulltext.pdf (12 October 2012).
  108. Maleki, A.-H., Gholipour, A., & Abedi Jafari, H. (2009). Effects of religious beliefs on tendency towards new business venture. Journal of Entrepreneurship Development, 3, 11–34.Google Scholar
  109. Man, T. W., Lau, T., & Chan, K. F. (2002). The competitiveness of small and medium enterprises: a conceptualization with focus on entrepreneurial competencies. Journal of Business Venturing, 17(2), 123–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Mars, M. M., & Hoskinson, S. (2009). Interesting entrepreneurship and law: An experiential learning exchange. In G. Page West, E. J. Gatewood, & K. G. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of university-wide entrepreneurship education (pp. 191–202). Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  111. Martin, A. (1982). Additional aspects of entrepreneurial history. In C. A. Kent, D. L. Sexton, & K. H. Vesper (Eds.), Encyclopedia of entrepreneurship (pp. 15–19). Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  112. Martin, G., & Staines, H. (1994). Managerial competences in small firms. Journal of Management Development, 13(7), 23–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Matlay, H. (2009). Entrepreneurship education in the UK: a critical analysis of stakeholder involvement and expectations. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 16(2), 355–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. McClelland, D. C. (1961). The achieving society. Princeton: D. Van Nostrand.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. McClelland, D. C. (1965). N achievement and entrepreneurship: a longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1(4), 389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. McGrath, R. G., MacMillan, I. C., & Scheinberg, S. (1992). Elitists, risk-takers, and rugged individualists? An exploratory analysis of cultural differences between entrepreneurs and non-entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing, 7(2), 115–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Mendes, A., & Kehoe, C. (2009). Academic entrepreneurship: possibilities and pitfalls. In G. Page West, E. J. Gatewood, & K. G. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of university-wide entrepreneurship education (pp. 73–94). Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  118. Mill, J. S. (1848). Principles of political economy with some of their applications to social philosophy, by John Stuart Mill. JW Parker.Google Scholar
  119. Miller, G. A. (1956). The magical number seven, plus or minus two: some limits on our capacity for processing information. Psychology Review, 63, 81–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Mitchelmore, S., & Rowley, J. (2010). Entrepreneurial competencies: a literature review and development agenda. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 16(2), 92–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Mitton, D. G. (1989). The complete entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 13(3), 9–19.Google Scholar
  122. Moore, D. P., Buttner, E. H. (1997). Women entrepreneurs, moving beyond the glass ceiling. Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  123. Murray, G. (1996). A synthesis of six exploratory, European case studies of successfully exited, venture capital-financed, new technology-based firms. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 20, 41–60.Google Scholar
  124. Nekka, H., & Fayolle, A. (2010). 11 Entrepreneurship education and ethnic minorities: the case of North African entrepreneurs in France. Handbook of Research in Entrepreneurship Education: International Perspectives, 3, 166.Google Scholar
  125. O’Sullivan, M. L. (2010). Iran and the great sanctions debate. The Washington Quarterly, 33(4), 7–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Obschonka, M., Silbereisen, R. K., & Schmitt-Rodermund, E. (2010). Entrepreneurial intention as developmental outcome. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 77, 63–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Orhan, M., & Scott, D. (2001). Why women enter into entrepreneurship: an explanatory model. Women in Management Review, 16(5), 232–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Pearson, C. A. L., & Chatterjee, S. R. (2001). Differences and similarities of entrepreneurial characteristics in a diverse social setting – evidence from Australian and Singaporean managers. Journal of Enterprising Culture, 9, 273–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Pena, I. (2002). Intellectual capital and business start-up success. Journal of Intellectual Capital, 3(2), 180–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Peterson, S. M. (2013). Iran’s deteriorating economy: An analysis of the economic impact of Western sanctions. International Affairs Review, Retrieved on 09th July 2013 at http://www.iar-gwu.org/node/428.
  131. Pillis, E. D. (1998). What’s achievement got to do with it? The role of national culture in the relationship between entrepreneurship and achievement motivation. Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research (Babson College). Available at www.babson.edu.
  132. Pistrui, D., Huang, W., Oksoy, D., Jing, Z., & Welsch, H. (2001). Entrepreneurship in China: characteristics, attributes, and family forces shaping the emerging private sector. Family Business Review, 14, 141–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Rasmussen, E., Mosey, S., & Wright, M. (2011). The evolution of entrepreneurial competencies: a longitudinal study of university spin-off venture emergence. Journal of Management Studies, 48(6), 1314–1345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Rauch, A., & Frese, M. (2007). Let`s put the person back into entrepreneurship research: a meta-analysis of the relationship between business owners’ personality characteristics and business creation and success. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 16(4), 353–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Razavi, M., Zali, M. R., Faghih, N., Ahmadpur, M., Kordnaeij, A., Farsi, J. Y., et al. (2008). Monitoring entrepreneurship in Iran GEM based data. Tehran: Minister of Labour and Social Affairs Publication.Google Scholar
  136. Rezaei-Zadeh, M. (2014). An analysis of core entrepreneurial competencies, their interdependencies and their cultivating approaches in virtual education using a collective intelligence methodology. PhD dissertation, University of Limerick, Ireland.Google Scholar
  137. Rezaei-Zadeh, M., Cleary, B., O’Reilly, J., Abdollahi, A., & Murphy, E. (2011). Identification and classification of entrepreneurial competencies mapped with human personalities. In H. Fulford (Ed.), Proceeding of the 06th European conference on innovation and entrepreneurship. Aberdeen: Robert Gordon University.Google Scholar
  138. Rezaei-Zadeh, M., O’Reilly, J., Hogan, M., Cleary, B., & Murphy, E. (2013). Designing a specific tool for measuring students’ and tutors’ mutual expectations from each other in an e-learning platform. ICELW 2013 conference proceeding, pp. 1–6.Google Scholar
  139. Rezaei-Zadeh, M., Hogan, M., O’Reilly, J., Cleary, B., & Murphy, E. (2014). Using interactive management to identify, rank and model entrepreneurial competencies as universities’ entrepreneurship curricula. Journal of Entrepreneurship, 23(1), 57–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Rittel, H., & Webber, M. (1974). Dilemmas in a general theory of planning. DMG-DRS Journal, 8, 31–39.Google Scholar
  141. Roebuck, D. B., Sightler, K. W., & Brush, C. C. (1995). Organizational size, company type, and position effects on the perceived importance of oral and written communication skills. Journal of Managerial Issues, 7(1), 99–115.Google Scholar
  142. Rothwell, W. J. (1994). Effective succession planning: Ensuring leadership continuity and building talent from within. New York: Amacom.Google Scholar
  143. Ruzzier, M., Antoncic, B., & Hisrich, R. D. (2007). Human capital and SME internationalization: a structural equation modeling study. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences, 24, 15–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Sadeghi, D., & Esteki, M. (2010). Compare the state airlines and the private ones on their entrepreneurial characteristics of managers. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5, 2006–2011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Sadler-Smith, E. (2010). The intuitive mind: Profiting from the power of your sixth sense. John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  146. Sánchez, J. C. (2011). University training for entrepreneurial competencies: its impact on intention of venture creation. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 7(2), 239–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. San Tan, S., & Ng, C. F. (2006). A problem-based learning approach to entrepreneurship education. Education+ Training, 48(6), 416–428.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Sapuan, D. A., Yusof, M., & Nor, L. M. (2009). Single mothers: breadwinners, their gender roles and entrepreneurial characteristics. Unitar E-Journal, 5, 48–60.Google Scholar
  149. Sato, T. (1979). Determination of hierarchical networks of instructional units using the ISM method. Educational Technology Research, 3, 67–75.Google Scholar
  150. Schiffrin, D., Tannen, D., & Hamilton, H. E. (2001). The handbook of discourse analysis.Google Scholar
  151. Schjoedt, L. (2009). Entrepreneurial job characteristics: an examination of their effect on entrepreneurial satisfaction. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 33, 619–644.Google Scholar
  152. Schmitt-Rodermund, E. (2004). Pathways to successful entrepreneurship: parenting, personality, early entrepreneurial competence, and interests. Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 65, 498–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Schumpeter, J. A. (1934). 77ie theory of economic development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  154. Schwab, K. (2011). The global competitiveness report 2011–2012. Geneva: World Economic Forum.Google Scholar
  155. Seelos, C., & Mair, J. (2005). Entrepreneurs in service of the poor: models for business contributions to sustainable development. Business Horizons, 48(3), 241–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Simon, H. A. (1960). The new science of management decisions. New York: Harper & Row.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Soriano, D. R., Espinosa, M. D. M. B., & Suanes, A. M. (2013). Cooperative learning and learning of knowledge through a joint venture: a study from the entrepreneurial firm perspective. rEviSta dE Economía mundial, (35), 67–85.Google Scholar
  158. Stuart, R., & Lindsay, P. (1997). Beyond the frame of management competenc (i) es: towards a contextually embedded framework of managerial competence in organizations. Journal of European Industrial Training, 21(1), 26–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Tajeddini, K., & Mueller, S. L. (2009). Entrepreneurial characteristics in Switzerland and the UK: a comparative study of techno-entrepreneurs. Journal of International Entrepreneurship, 7, 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Thomas, A. S., & Mueller, S. L. (2000). A case for comparative entrepreneurship: assessing the relevance of culture. Journal of International Business Studies, 287–301.Google Scholar
  161. Timmons, J. A. (1979). Careful self-analysis and team assessment can aid entrepreneurs. Harvard Business Review, 57(6), 198.Google Scholar
  162. Walsh, G., & Cunningham J. (2015). The effects of identification by the entrepreneurs to the firm versus to the process. Babson entrepreneurship research conference. Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, 35.Google Scholar
  163. Warfield, J. N. (1976). Societal systems: Planning, policy, and complexity. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  164. Warfield, J. N. (1994). A science of generic design: Managing complexity through systems design (2nd ed.). Salinas: Intersystems.Google Scholar
  165. Warfield, J. N. (2006). An introduction to systems science. Singapore: World Scientific.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Weaver, K. M., D’Intino, R., Miller, D. M., & Schoen, E. J. (2009). Building an entrepreneurial university: A case study using a new venture development approach. In G. P. West, E. J. Gatewood, & K. G. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of university-wide entrepreneurship education (pp. 107–121). Massachusetts: Edward Elgar Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  167. Windrum, P. (2008). Innovation and entrepreneurship in public services. Innovation in public sector services: entrepreneurship, creativity and management. 3–22.Google Scholar
  168. Wong, W.-K., Cheung, H.-M., & Venuvinod, P. (2005). Individual entrepreneurial characteristics and entrepreneurial success potential. International Journal of Innovation and Technology Management, 2, 277–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Zali, M. R., & Razavi, S. M. (2012). Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) National Report: Iran. Retrieved at http://www.gemconsortium.org/docs/download/2814 on 05th August 2013.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Morteza RezaeiZadeh
    • 1
    • 2
  • Michael Hogan
    • 3
  • John O’Reilly
    • 2
  • James Cunningham
    • 4
  • Eamonn Murphy
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of EducationShahid Beheshti UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Education and Professional StudiesUniversity of LimerickLimerickIreland
  3. 3.School of Psychology, NUIGalwayIreland
  4. 4.Newcastle Business SchoolNorthumbria UniversityNewcastle upon TyneUK
  5. 5.Enterprise Research CentreUniversity of LimerickLimerickIreland

Personalised recommendations