A considerable agreement exists about the importance of promoting entrepreneurship to stimulate economic development. In particular, recent research has paid considerable attention to the role of entrepreneurship education in explaining entrepreneurship intentions; also, numerous studies have found empirical evidence for subjective norms affecting the attitude toward entrepreneurial behavior and the perceived control over that behavior. However, cognitive models have not yet considered the moderating role of entrepreneurship education on these relationships. Drawing on the theory of planned behavior, we analyze how the interaction between entrepreneurship education and subjective norms shapes the perceptions and attitudes toward entrepreneurship. To this end, structural equation modeling is applied to data from a sample of 338 final-year undergraduates using multi sample analysis. Results show that entrepreneurship education has a significant moderating role, mitigating the relationship between subjective norms and perceived behavioral control, and strengthening the relationship between subjective norms and entrepreneurial attitudes. Results also have relevant implications for women’s entrepreneurship.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179–211.
Ajzen, I. (2002). Perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, locus of control, and the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32(4), 665–683.
Ajzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (2004). Questions raised by a reasoned action approach: reply to Ogden (2003).Health Psychology, 23, 431–434.
Armitage, C. J., & Conner, M. (2001). Efficacy of the theory of planned behavior: a Meta-Analytic Review. British Journal of Social Psychology, 40(4), 471–499.
Arregle, J. L., Batjargal, B., Hitt, M. A., Webb, J. W., Miller, T., & Tsui, A. S. (2015). Family ties in entrepreneurs' social networks and new venture growth. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 39(2), 313–344.
Athayde, R. (2009). Measuring Enterprise potential in young people. Entrepreneurship. Theory and Practice, March, 33(2), 481–500.
Auken Van, H. (2013). Influence of a culture-based entrepreneurship program on student interest in business ownership. International Entrepreneurship And Management Journal, 9(2), 261–272.
Autio, E., Keeley, R. H., Klofsten, M., Parker, G. G. C., & Hay, M. (2001). Entrepreneurial intent among students in Scandinavia and in the USA. Enterprise And Innovation Management Studies, 2(2), 145–160.
Bae, J. T., Qian, S., Miao, C., & Fiet, J. O. (2014). The relationship between Entrepreneurship Education and Entrepreneurial intentions: a Meta-Analytic Review. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 38(2), 217–245.
Bagheri, A., & Pihie, Z. A. L. (2014). The moderating role of gender in shaping entrepreneurial intentions: implications for vocational guidance. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 14(3), 255–273.
Bandura, A. (1977). Self Efficacy: the Exercise of Control. New York: Freeman.
Bandura, A. (1992). Exercise of Personal Agency through the self-efficacy mechanism. In R. Schwartzer (Ed.), Self-Efficacy: thought Control of Action (pp. 3–38). Washington: DC: Hemisphere.
Baughn, C. C., Chua, B. L., & Neupert, K. E. (2006). The normative context for women's participation in entrepreneruship: A multicountry study. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30(5), 687–708.
Becker, G. S. (1964). Human Capital: a Theoretical and Empirical Analysis, with Special Reference to Education. New York: Columbia University Press.
Bem, S. L. (1981). Bem Sex Role inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Mind Garden.
Bentler, P. M. (2006). EQS 6 structural equations program manual. Encino, CA: Multivariate Software, Inc..
Bird, B. (1988). Implementing Entrepreneurial ideas: the case of intentions. Academy Of Management Review, 13(3), 442–454.
Bird, B., & Brush, C. (2002). A gendered perspective on organizational creation. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 26(3), 41–65.
Boyd, N. G., & Vozikis, G. S. (1994). The influence of self-efficacy on the development of Entrepreneurial intentions and actions. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 18, 63–77.
Brush, C. G. (1992). Research on women business owners: past trends, a new perspective and future directions. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 16(4), 5–30.
Bullough, A., de Luque, M. S., Abdelzaher, D., & Heim, W. (2015). Developing women leaders through entrepreneurship education and training. The Academy Of Management Perspectives, 29(2), 250–270.
Busenitz, L. W., Plummer, L. A., Klotz, A. C., Shahzad, A., & Rhoads, K. (2014). Entrepreneurship research (1985–2009) and the emergence of opportunities. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 38(5), 981–1000.
Cain, D. M., Moore, D. A., & Haran, U. (2015). Making sense of overconfidence in market entry. Strategic Management Journal, 36(1), 1–18.
Carr, J. C., & Sequeira, J. M. (2007). Prior family business exposure as intergenerational influence and Entrepreneurial intent: a theory of planned behavior approach. Journal of Business Research, 60, 1090–1098.
Casrud, A. L. (1992). The psychology of Entrepreneurship. Stirling: University of Stirling.
Coleman, J. S. (1988). Social Capital in the creation of Human capital. American Journal of Sociology, 94, 95–120.
Cooper, A. C. (1993). Challenges in predicting new firm performance. Journal of Business Venturing, 8(3), 241–253.
DeBruin, A., Brush, C. G., & Welter, F. (2007). Advancing a framework for coherent research on Women’s Entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship. Theory and Practice, 31(3), 323–329.
Díaz García, M. C., & Jiménez Moreno, J. (2010). Entrepreneurial intention: the role of gender. International Entrepreneurship Management Journal, 6, 261–283.
Díaz-Casero, J. C., Hernández-Mogollón, R., & Roldán, J. L. (2012). A structural model of the antecedents to entrepreneurial capacity. International Small Business Journal, 30(8), 850–872.
do Paço, A., Ferreira, J. M., Raposo, M., Rodrigues, R. G., & Dinis, A. (2015). Entrepreneurial intentions: is education enough? International Entrepreneurship And Management Journal, 11(1), 57–75.
Dohse, D., & Walter, S. G. (2012). Knowledge context and Entrepreneurial intentions among students. Small Business Economics, 39(4), 877–895.
Duval-Couetil, N. (2013). Assessing the impact of Entrepreneurship Education programme: challenges and approaches. Journal of Small Business Management, 51(3), 394–409.
Eagly, A. H., & Chaiken, S. (1993). The psychology of attitudes. Orlando, FL: Harcourt Brace Collage Publishers.
Eagly, A. H., Wood, W., & Diekman, A. B. (2000). Social role theory of sex differences and similarities: a current appraisal. In T. Eckes & H. M. Trautner (Eds.), The development Social psychology of gender (pp. 23–174). Mahwah, NJ: Eribaum.
Falck, O., Heblich, S., & Luedemann, E. (2012). Identity and Entrepreneurship: Do School Peers shape Entrepreneurial intentions? Small Business Economics, 39, 39–59.
Fayole, A., Gailly, B., & Lassas-Clerc, N. (2006). Assessing the impact of Entrepreneurship Education programmes: a new methodology. Journal of European Industrial Training, 30(9), 701–720.
Fayolle, A. (2013). Personal views of the future of Entrepreneurship Education. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 25(7–8), 692–701.
Fayolle, A., & Gailly, B. (2015). The impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial attitudes and intention: hysteresis and persistence. Journal of Small Business Management, 53(1), 75–93.
Fayolle, A., & Liñán, F. (2014). The future of research on Entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Research, 67, 663–666.
Fayolle, A., Liñán, F., & Moriano, J. A. (2014). Beyond Entrepreneurial intentions: values and motivations in Entrepreneurship. International Entrepreneurship Management Journal, 10, 679–689.
Fielden, S. L., & Hunt, C. M. (2011). On line coaching: an alternative source of Social support for female entrepreneurs during venture creation. International Small Business Journal, 29(4), 345–349.
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. . Journal of marketing research, 18(1), 39–50.
Fretschner, M., & Weber, S. (2013). Measuring and understanding the effects of entrepreneurial awareness education. Journal of Small Business Management, 51(3), 410–428.
García-Rodríguez, F. J., Gil-Soto, E., Ruiz-Rosa, I., & Sene, P. M. (2015). Entrepreneurial intentions in diverse development contexts: A cross-cultural comparison between Senegal and Spain. International Entrepreneurship And Management Journal, 11(3), 511–527.
GEM (2015). GEM 2014 Global Report. Downloaded 16/12/2015 from http://gemconsortium.org/report
Giacomin, O., Janssen, F., Pruett, M., Shinnar, R. S., Llopis, F., & Toney, B. (2011). Entrepreneurial intentions, motivations and barriers: differences among American, Asian and European students. International Entrepreneurship And Management Journal, 7(2), 219–238.
Greer, G. (2014). The whole woman. Random House.
Gupta, V. K., Turban, D. B., Wasti, S. A., & Sikdar, A. (2009). The role of gender stereotypes in perceptions of entrepreneurs and intentions to become an entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 33(2), 397–418.
Gupta, V K., Turban, D.B., &.Pareek, A. (2012). Differences between men and women in opportunity evaluation as a function of gender stereotypes and stereotype activation. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 37(4), 771–789.
Gupta, V. K., Goktan, A. B., & Gunay, G. (2014). Gender differences in evaluation of new business opportunity: A stereotype threat perspective. Journal of Business Venturing, 29(2), 273–288.
Harrell, S. (1997). Human families. Westview Press.
Hayton, J. C., & Cholakova, M. (2012). The role of affect in the creation and intentional pursuit of entrepreneurial ideas. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 36(1), 41–68.
Hayton, J. C., George, G., & Zahra, S. A. (2002). National culture and entrepreneurship: A review of behavioral research. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 26(4), 33–52.
Hindle, K., Klyver, K., & Jennings, D. F. (2009). An “informed” intent model: Incorporating human capital, social capital, and gender variables into the theoretical model of entrepreneurial intentions. In In Understanding the entrepreneurial mind (pp. 35–50). New York: Springer.
Hughes, K. D., Jennings, J. E., Brush, C., Carter, S., & Welter, F. (2012). Extending women's entrepreneurship research in new directions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 36(3), 429–442.
Hui-Chen, C., Kuen-Hung, T., & Chen-Yi, P. (2014). The entrepreneurial process: an integrated model. International Entrepreneurship And Management Journal, 10(4), 727–745.
Jaccard, J., & Wan, C. K. (1996). LISREL approaches to interaction effects in multiple regression (Quantitative applications in the social sciences No. 114). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Jayawarna, D., Jones, O., & Macpherson, A. (2014). Entrepreneurial potential: the role of human and cultural capitals. International Small Business Journal, 32(8), 918–943.
Jennings, J. E., & McDougalds, M. S. (2007). Work-family Interface experiences and coping strategies: implications for Entrepreneurship research and practice. Academy Of Management Review, 32, 747–760.
Kautonen, T., Gelderen, M., & Fink, M. (2013). Robustness of the theory of planned behavior in predicting entrepreneurial intentions and actions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 39(3), 655–674.
Kolvereid, L. (1996). Organizational employment versus Self Employment: reasons for career choice intentions. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 20(3), 23–21.
Kolvereid, L., Shane, S., & Westhead, P. (1993). Is it equally difficult for female entrepreneurs to start businesses in all countries? Journal of Small Business Management, 31, 42–51.
Krueger, N. F. (2000). The cognitive infrastructure of opportunity emergence. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 24(3), 5–23.
Krueger, N. F., & Casrud, A. L. (1993). Entrepreneurial intentions: applying the theory of planned behavior. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 5, 315–330.
Krueger, N. F., Reilly, M. D., & Carsrud, A. L. (2000). Competing models of Entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Business Venturing, 15(5–6), 411–432.
Kuehn, K. W. (2008). Entrepreneurial intentions research: implications for entrepreneurship education. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 11, 87.
Langowitz, N., & Minniti, M. (2007). The Entrepreneurial propensity of women. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 31, 341–364.
Lee, S. M., & Peterson, S. J. (2001). Culture, entrepreneurial orientation, and global competitiveness. Journal of World Business, 35(4), 401–416.
Leiter, M. P. (1990). The impact of family resources, control coping, and skill utilization on the development of burnout: A longitudinal study. Human Relations, 43(11), 1067–1083.
Lim, S., & Envick, B. R. (2013). Gender and entrepreneurial orientation: a multi-country study. International Entrepreneurship And Management Journal, 9(3), 465–482.
Liñán, F. (2008). Skill and value perceptions: how do they affect entrepreneurial intentions? International Entrepreneurship And Management Journal, 4(3), 257–272.
Liñán, F., & Chen, Y. W. (2009). Development and cross-cultural application of a specific instrument to measure Entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 75(1), 593–617.
Liñán, F., & Santos, F. J. (2007). Does Social Capital affect Entrepreneurial intentions? International Advances in Economic Research, 13(4), 443–453.
Liñán, F., Rodríguez-Cohard, J. C., & Rueda-Cantuche, J. M. (2011a). Factors affecting Entrepreneurial intention levels: a role for education. International Entrepreneurship Management Journal, 7, 195–218.
Liñán, F., Urbano, D., & Guerrero, M. (2011b). Regional variations in Entrepreneurial cognitions: start-Up intentions of university students in Spain. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 23(3/4), 187–215.
Lippa, R. A. (2005). Gender, Nature and Nurture. Mahwah, New York: Eribaum.
Marlow, S., & Patton, D. (2005). All credit to men? Entrepreneurship, finance, and gender. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29(6), 717–735.
Martin, B. C., McNally, J. J., & Kay, M. J. (2013). Examining the formation of Human Capital in Entrepreneurship: A Meta-Analysis of Entrepreneurship Education outcomes. Journal of Business Venturing, 28, 211–224.
Matthews, C. H., & Moser, S. B. (1996). A longitudinal investigation of the impact of family background and gender on interest in small firm ownership. Journal of Small Business Management, 34(2), 29–43.
McCann, B. T., & Vroom, G. (2015). Opportunity evaluation and changing beliefs during the nascent entrepreneurial process. International Small Business Journal, 33(6), 612–637.
Morris, M. H., Miyasaki, N. N., Watters, C. E., & Coombes, S. M. (2006). The dilemma of growth: understanding venture size choices of women entrepreneurs. Journal of Small Business Management, 44(2), 221–244.
Morris, M. H., Webb, J. W., Fu, J., & Singhal, S. (2013). A competency-based perspective on Entrepreneurship Education: conceptual and empirical insights. Journal of Small Business Management, 51(3), 352–369.
Oosterbeek, H., van Praag, M., & Ijsselstein, A. (2010). The impact of Entrepreneurship Education on Entrepreneurship skills and motivation. European Economic Review, 54, 442–454.
Powell, G. N., & Eddleston, K. A. (2013). Linking family-to-business enrichment and support to Entrepreneurial success: do female and Male entrepreneurs experience different outcomes? Journal of Business Venturing, 28, 261–280.
Rauch, A., & Hulsink, W. (2015). Putting entrepreneurship education where the intention to act lies: An investigation into the impact of entrepreneurship education on entrepreneurial behavior. Academy of Management Learning & Education, 14(2), 187–204.
Rideout, E. C., & Gray, D. O. (2013). Does Entrepreneurship Education really work? A review and methodological critique of the empirical literature on the effects of University-Based Entrepreneurship Education. Journal of Small Business Management, 51(3), 329–351.
Robinson, P., Stimpson, D. V., Huefner, J. C., & Hunt, H. K. (1991). An attitude approach to the prediction of Entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 15(4), 13–31.
Santos, F. J., Roomi, M. A., & Liñán, F. (2014). About gender differences and the Social environment in the development of Entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Small Business Management 54, 49-66.
Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. M. (1988). Scaling corrections for chi-square statistics in covariance structure analysis. In Proceedings of the American Statistical Association 1, 308–313
Scherer, R. F., Brodzinsky, J. D., & Wiebe, F. A. (1991). Examining the relationship between personality and Entrepreneurial career preference. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 3, 195–206.
Shapero, A., & Sokol, L. (1982). Social dimensions of entrepreneurship,. In C. A. Kent, D. L. Sexton, & K. H. Vesper (Eds.), Encyclopedia of entrepreneurship (pp. 72–90). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Shinnar, R. S. O., Giacomin, O., & Janssen, F. (2012). Entrepreneurial Perception and Intentions: the Role of Gender and Culture,. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 36, 465–493.
Shneor, R., Metin Camgöz, S., & Bayhan Karapinar, P. (2013). The interaction between culture and sex in the formation of entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 25(9–10), 781–803.
Shook, C. L., Ketchen, D. J., Hult, G. T. M., & Kacmar, K. M. (2004). An assessment of the use of structural equation modeling in strategic management research. Strategic Management Journal, 25(4), 397–404.
Simon, M., Houghton, S. M., & Aquino, K. (2000). Cognitive biases, risk perception, and venture formation: how individuals decide to start companies. Journal of Business Venturing, 15(2), 113–134.
Souitaris, V., Zerbinati, S., & Al-Laham, A. (2007). Do Entrepreneurship Programmes raise Entrepreneurial intention of science and engineering students? the effect of learning, inspiration and resources. Journal of Business Venturing, 22, 566–591.
Steenkamp, J. B. E., & Van Trijp, H. (1991). The use of LISREL in validating marketing constructs. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 8(4), 283–299.
Thébaud, S. (2015). Business as plan B Institutional foundations of gender inequality in Entrepreneurship across 24 industrialized countries. Administrative Science Quarterly, 60(4), 671–711.
Tinkler, J. E., Whittington, K. B., Ku, M. C., & Davies, A. R. (2015). Gender and venture capital decision-making: the effects of technical background and social capital on entrepreneurial evaluations. Social Science Research, 51, 1–16.
Tkachev, A., & Kolvereid, L. (1999). Self-employment intentions among Russian students. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 11(3), 269–280.
Van Gelderen, M., Brand, M., van Praag, M., Bodewes, W., Poutsma, E., & Van Gils, A. (2008). Explaining entrepreneurial intentions by means of the theory of planned behaviour. Career Development International, 13(6), 538–559.
Von Graevenitz, G., Harhoff, D., & Weber, R. (2010). The effects of Entrepreneurship Education. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 76, 90–112.
Walter, S. G., Parboteeah, K. P., & Walter, A. (2013). University departments and self-employment intentions of business students: A cross-level analysis. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 37(2), 175–200.
Wilson, F., Kickul, J., & Marlino, D. (2007). Gender, Entrepreneurial self-efficacy and Entrepreneurial career intentions: implications for Entrepreneurship Education. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, may, 31, 387–407.
Wood, W., & Eagly, A. H. (2010). Gender. In S. T. Fiske, D. T. Gilbert, & G. Lindzery (Eds.), Handbook of Social Psychology(pp (pp. 629–667). New York: Oxford University Press.
Zhang, Y., Duysters, G., & Cloodt, M. (2013). The role of Entrepreneurship Education as a predictor of university Students’s Entrepreneurial intention. International Entrepreneurship Management Journal, 1-19.
Zhao, H., Seibert, S. E., & Hills, G. E. (2005). The mediating role of self-efficacy in the development of Entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(6), 1265–1272.
This research has received funding from the Spanish Government within the National Plan for Scientific Research, Development and Technological Innovation (project ECO2012-33204).
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Entrialgo, M., Iglesias, V. The moderating role of entrepreneurship education on the antecedents of entrepreneurial intention. Int Entrep Manag J 12, 1209–1232 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-016-0389-4
- Entrepreneurial intention
- Entrepreneurship education
- Subjective Norms