Entrepreneurial orientation and knowledge acquisition: effects on performance in the specific context of women-owned firms

  • María del Mar Fuentes-Fuentes
  • Ana M. BojicaEmail author
  • Matilde Ruiz-Arroyo


This study seeks to offer new insights into the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and performance by focusing on the specific context of women-owned firms. In particular, it analyses the influence of entrepreneurial orientation and external knowledge acquisition on firm performance. The results obtained from a sample of Spanish women entrepreneurs show that entrepreneurial orientation is positively related to operational and financial performance. However, knowledge acquisition affects financial performance only via its effects on entrepreneurial orientation, suggesting a mediating role for entrepreneurial orientation. By incorporating variables that have received little consideration in the literature on women-owned firms, such as entrepreneurial orientation and external knowledge acquisition, this study advances the knowledge regarding the factors that may contribute to the creation of sustainable women-led businesses.


Entrepreneurial orientation Performance Knowledge acquisition Women-owned firms 



This work was supported by the Ministry of Science and Innovation of Spain [FEM2009-08511].


  1. Aldrich, H. (1989). Networking among women entrepreneurs. In O. Hagan, C. Rivchun, & D. Sexton (Eds.), Women-Owned Businesses (pp. 103–132). New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  2. Aldrich, H., Amanda, E., & Reese, P.R. (1997). Strong ties, weak ties, and strangers: Do women business owners differ from men in their use of networking to obtain assistance?. In Birley. S. & MacMillan, I. (Eds), Entrepreneurship in a Global Context (pp. 1–25). RoutledgeGoogle Scholar
  3. Alvarez, S. A., & Busenitz, L. W. (2001). The entrepreneurship of resource-based theory. Journal of Management, 27(6), 755–775.Google Scholar
  4. Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: a review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 411–423.Google Scholar
  5. Anna, A. L., Chandler, G. N., Janssen, E., & Mero, N. P. (2000). Women business owners in traditional and non-traditional industries. Journal of Business Venturing, 15(3), 279–303.Google Scholar
  6. Argote, L. (1999). Organizational Learning: Creating, Retaining and Transferring Knowledge. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  7. Argote, L., McEvily, B., & Reagans, R. (2003). Introduction to the special issue on managing knowledge in organizations: creating, retaining, and transferring knowledge. Management Science, 49(4), v-viii.Google Scholar
  8. Armstrong, J. S., & Overton, T. S. (1977). Estimating nonresponse bias in mail surveys. Journal of Marketing Research, 143, 396–402.Google Scholar
  9. Atherton, A. (2003). The uncertainty of knowing: an analysis of the nature of knowledge in a small business context. Human Relations, 56(11), 1379–1398.Google Scholar
  10. Boden, R. J., & Nucci, A. R. (2000). On the survival prospects of men’s and women’s new business ventures. Journal of Business Venturing, 15(4), 347–362.Google Scholar
  11. Bollen, K. A. (1989). Structural Equations with Latent Variables. New York: John Wiley and Sons.Google Scholar
  12. Bradley, S. W., Shepherd, D. A., & Wiklund, J. (2010). The Importance of slack for new organizations facing ‘tough’ environments. Journal of Management Studies, 48(5), 1071–1097.Google Scholar
  13. Brown, M.W., & Cudek, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing models fit. In Bollen, K. A., Long, J.S (Eds), Testing structural equation models (pp. 136162). Newbury Park, CA: Sage PublicationsGoogle Scholar
  14. Brüderl, J., & Preisendörfer, P. (1998). Network support and the success of newly founded businesses. Small Business Economics, 10, 213–25.Google Scholar
  15. Brush, C. G. (1992). Research on women business owners: past trends, a new perspective and future directions. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 16(4), 5–30.Google Scholar
  16. Brush, C. G., Carter, N., Greene, P. G., Hart, M., & Gatewood, E. J. (2002). The role of social capital and gender in linking financial suppliers and entrepreneurial firms: a framework for future research. Venture Capital Journal, 4(4), 305–323.Google Scholar
  17. Burgelman, R. A., & Grove, A. S. (2007). Let chaos reign, then rein in chaos - repeteadly: Managing strategic dynamics for corporate longevity. Strategic Management Journal, 28(10), 965–979.Google Scholar
  18. Carter, N. (2002). The role of risk orientation on financing expectations in new venture creation: Does sex matter?. Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research. Babson-Kauffman Foundation. Available at Scholar
  19. Carter, S., & Marlow, S. (2003). Accounting for change: professionalism as a challenge to gender disadvantage in entrepreneurship. In J. Butler (Ed.), New Perspectives on Women Entrepreneurs, Research in Entrepreneurship and Management Series (pp. 181–202). Greenwich CT: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  20. Carter, N. M., Williams, M., & Reynolds, P. D. (1997). Discontinuance among new firms in retail: the influence of initial resources, strategy, and gender. Journal of Business Venturing, 12, 125–145.Google Scholar
  21. Carter, S., Anderson, S., & Shaw E. (2001). Women’s business ownership: A review of the academicGoogle Scholar
  22. Chaston, I., & Sadler-Smith, E. (2011). Entrepreneurial Cognition, Entrepreneurial Orientation and Firm Capability in the creative industries. British Journal of Management, 23(3), 415–432.Google Scholar
  23. Cohen, W. Y., & Levinthal, D. (1990). Absorptive capacity: a new learning perspective on learning and innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35, 128–152.Google Scholar
  24. Coleman, S. (2002). Constraints faced by women small business owners: evidence from the data. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 7(2), 151–174.Google Scholar
  25. Coleman, S. (2007). The role of human and financial capital in the profitability and growth of women-owned small firms. Journal of Small Business Management, 45(3), 303–319.Google Scholar
  26. Collins-Dodd, C., Gordon, I., & Smart, C. (2004). Further evidence on the role of gender in financial performance. Journal of Small Business Management, 42(4), 395–417.Google Scholar
  27. Conner, K. R., & Prahalad, C. K. (1996). A resource-based theory of the firm: knowledge versus opportunism. Organization Science, 7(5), 477–501.Google Scholar
  28. Cope, J. (2005). Toward a dynamic learning perspective of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 29(4), 373–397.Google Scholar
  29. Corbett, A. C. (2005). Experiential learning within the process of opportunity identification and exploitation. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 29(4), 473–491.Google Scholar
  30. Covin, J. G., & Slevin, D. P. (1989). Strategic management of small firms in hostile and benign environments. Strategic Management Journal, 10(1), 75–87.Google Scholar
  31. Covin, J. G., Green, K., & Slevin, D. P. (2006). Strategic process effects on the entrepreneurial orientation-sales growth rate relationship. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 30(1), 57–81.Google Scholar
  32. Coyle, H.E., & Flannery, D. (2005). Gendered contexts of learning: female entrepreneurs in male-dominated industries within the United States. Available at: Scholar
  33. Cromie, S., & Birley, S. (1992). Networking by female business owners in Northern Ireland. Journal of Business Venturing, 7(3), 237–251.Google Scholar
  34. Cuba, R., Decenzo, D., & Anish, A. (1983). Management practices of successful female business owners. American Journal of Small Business, 8(2), 40–46.Google Scholar
  35. Davidsson, P. A., & Honig, B. (2003). The role of social and human capital among nascent entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing, 18(3), 301–331.Google Scholar
  36. Díaz, C., & Carter, S. (2009). Resource mobilization through business owners’ networks: is gender an issue? International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 13, 226–252.Google Scholar
  37. Du Rietz, A., & Henrekson, M. (2000). Testing the female underperformance hypothesis. Small Business Economics, 14(1), 1–10.Google Scholar
  38. Dyer, J., & Singh, H. (1998). The relational view: cooperative strategy and sources of interorganizational competitive advantage. Academy of Management Review, 23(4), 660–679.Google Scholar
  39. Escribá –Esteve, A., Sánchez-Peinado, L., & Sánchez-Peinado, E. (2009). The influence of top management teams in the strategic orientation and performance of small and medium-sized enterprises. British Journal of Management, 20, 581–597.Google Scholar
  40. Fenwick, T., & Hutton, S. (2000). Women crafting new work: The learning of women entrepreneurs. Paper presented as Adult Education Research Conference. BC: University of British Columbia: Vancouver.Google Scholar
  41. Fischer, E. A., Reuber, R., & Dyke, L. (1993). A theoretical overview and extension of research on sex gender and entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Venturing, 8(2), 151–168.Google Scholar
  42. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 4, 39–50.Google Scholar
  43. Goktan, A.B.., & Gupta, V.K. (2013). Sex, gender, and individual entrepreneurial orientation: Evidence from four countries. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 1–18. doi: 10.1007/s11365-013-0278-z
  44. González, M. D., & Husted, B. W. (2011). Gender, human capital, and opportunity identification in Mexico. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 3(3), 236–253.Google Scholar
  45. Grant, R. M. (1996). Toward a knowledge-based theory of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 17, 109–122.Google Scholar
  46. Gundry, L. K., & Welsch, H. P. (2001). The ambitious entrepreneur: high growth strategies of women-owned enterprises. Journal of Business Venturing, 16(5), 453–470.Google Scholar
  47. Gupta, V. K., & Bhawe, N. M. (2007). The influence of proactive personality and stereotype threat on women’s entrepreneurial intentions. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 13, 73–85.Google Scholar
  48. Gupta, V. K., Goktan, A. B., & Gunay, G. (2014). Gender differences in evaluation of new business opportunity: a stereotype threat perspective. Journal of Business Venturing, 29(2), 273–288.Google Scholar
  49. Hair, J. H., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1995). Multivariate Data Analysis. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  50. Hechavarria, D. M., Ingram, A., Justo, R., & Terjesen, S. (2012). Are women more likely to pursue social and environmental entrepreneurship? In K. D. Hughes & J. E. Jennings (Eds.), Global women’s entrepreneurship research: Diverse settings, questions and approaches (pp. 135–151). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  51. Hisrich, R. D., & Brush, C. G. (1987). Women entrepreneurs: A longitudinal study. In N. C. Churchill, J. A. Hornaday, B. A. Kirchhoff, O. J. Krasner, & K. H. Vesper (Eds.), Frontiers of Entrepreneurial Research (pp. 187–199). Boston MA: Babson College.Google Scholar
  52. Hitt, M. A., Ireland, R. D., & Hoskisson, R. E. (2003). Strategic Management: Competitiveness and Globalization (5th ed.). Western Ohio: Thomson South.Google Scholar
  53. Hoyle, R. H. (1995). The structural equation modeling approach: Basic concepts and fundamental issues. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), Structural Equation Modeling: Concepts Issues and Applications (pp. 1–15). Thousand Oaks CA: Sage Publications Inc.Google Scholar
  54. Huber, G. P. (1991). Organizational learning: the contributing processes and the literature. Organization Science, 2, 88–115.Google Scholar
  55. Hughes, M., Hughest, P., & Morgan, R. E. (2007). Exploitative learning and entrepreneurial orientation alignment in emerging young firm: implications for market and response performance. British Journal of Management, 18, 359–375.Google Scholar
  56. Hughes, K. D., Jennings, J. E., Brush, C., Carter, S., & Welter, F. (2012). Extending women’s entrepreneurship research in new directions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 36, 429–442.Google Scholar
  57. Hult, G. T. M., Hurley, R. F., & Knight, G. A. (2004). Innovativeness: its antecedents and impact on business performance. Industrial Marketing Management, 33(5), 429–438.Google Scholar
  58. Jennings, J. E., & Brush, C. G. (2013). Research on women entrepreneurs: challenges to (and from) the broader entrepreneurship literature? Academy of Management Annals, 7, 661–713.Google Scholar
  59. Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (1993). Lisrel 8: Structural Equation Modeling with the Simplis Command Language. Chicago: Scientific Software International.Google Scholar
  60. Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (2002). LISREL 8: Structural Equation Modeling with the SIMPLIS Command Language. Chicago: Scientific Software International.Google Scholar
  61. Keh, H. T., Foo, M. D., & Lim, B. C. (2002). Opportunity evaluation under risky conditions: the cognitive processes of entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 27, 125–148.Google Scholar
  62. Kepler, E., & Shane, S. (2007). Are male and female entrepreneurs really that different? Washington DC: SBA Office of Advocacy, Working Paper 309Google Scholar
  63. Kreiser, P. M., Marino, L. D., & Weaver, K. M. (2002). Assessing the psychometric properties of the Entrepreneurial Orientation scale: A multi-country analysis (pp. 71–94). Summer: Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice.Google Scholar
  64. Kyrgidou, L. P., & Spyropoulou, S. (2012). Drivers and performance outcomes of innovativeness: an empirical study. British Journal of Management, published online. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8551.2011.00803.x.Google Scholar
  65. Lechner, C., & Gudmundsson, S. V. (2014). Entrepreneurial orientation, firm strategy and small firm performance. International Small Business Journal, 32(1), 36–60.Google Scholar
  66. Lee, C., Lee, K., & Pennings, J. M. (2001). Internal capabilities external networks and performance: a study on technology-based ventures. Strategic Management Journal, 22(6/7), 615–640.Google Scholar
  67. Leiponen, A. (2000). Competencies innovation and profitability of firms. Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 9(1), 1–24.Google Scholar
  68. Lerner, M., & Almor, T. (2002). Relationships among strategic capabilities and the performance of women-owned small ventures. Journal of Small Business Management, 40, 109–125. doi: 10.1111/1540-627X.00044.Google Scholar
  69. Liao, J., Welsch, H. Y., & Stoica, M. (2003). Organizational absorptive capacity and responsiveness: an empirical investigation of growth-oriented SMEs. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 28(1), 63–86.Google Scholar
  70. Lim, S., & Envick, B. R. (2013). Gender and entrepreneurial orientation: a multi-country study. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 9, 465–482.Google Scholar
  71. Lumpkin, G. T., & Dess, D. G. (1996). Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to performance. Academy of Management Review, 21(1), 135–172.Google Scholar
  72. Lumpkin, G. T., & Dess, G. G. (2001). Linking two dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation to firm performance: the moderating role of environment and industry life cycle. Journal of Business Venturing, 16, 429–451.Google Scholar
  73. Manolova, T. S., Carter, N. M., Manev, I. M., & Gyoshev, B. S. (2007). The differential effect of men and women entrepreneurs human capital and networking on growth expectancies in Bulgaria. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 31(3), 407–426.Google Scholar
  74. Markman, G. D., Balkin, D. B., & Baron, R. A. (2002). Inventors and new venture formation: the effects of general self-efficacy and regretful thinking. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 27(2), 149–165.Google Scholar
  75. Marlow, S., & Patton, D. (2005). All credit to men? Entrepreneurship finance and gender. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 29(6), 717–734.Google Scholar
  76. Marvel, M. R., & Lumpkin, G. T. (2007). Technology entrepreneurs’ human capital and its effect on innovation radicalness. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 31(6), 807–828.Google Scholar
  77. Masters, R., & Meier, R. (1988). Sex differences and risk taking propensity of entrepreneurs. Journal of Small Business Management, 26(1), 31–35.Google Scholar
  78. Matusik, S. F., & Heeley, M. B. (2005). Absorptive capacity in the software industry: identifying Dimensions that affect knowledge and knowledge creation activities. Journal of Management, 31(4), 549–572.Google Scholar
  79. McGowan, P., Redeker, C. L., Cooper, S. Y., & Greenan, K. (2012). Female entrepreneurship and the management of business and domestic roles: motivations, expectations and realities. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, 24(1/2), 53–72.Google Scholar
  80. Menon, T., & Pfeffer, J. (2003). Valuing internal versus external knowledge. Management Science, 49(4), 497–513.Google Scholar
  81. Miller, D., & Friesen, P. H. (1978). Archetypes of strategy formulation. Management Science, 24(9), 921–933.Google Scholar
  82. Minniti, M. (2009). Gender Issues in Entrepreneurship. Foundations and Trends in Entrepreneurhip, 57(8), 1551–3114.Google Scholar
  83. Minniti, M., & Nardone, C. (2007). Being in someone else’s shoes: gender and nascent entrepreneurship. Small Business Economics Journal, 28(2–3), 223–239.Google Scholar
  84. Moore, D. P., & Buttner, E. H. (1997). Women Entrepreneurs: Moving Beyond the Glass Ceiling. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  85. Moreno, A. M., & Casillas, J. C. (2008). Entrepreneurial orientation and growth of SMEs: a causal model. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 32(3), 507–528.Google Scholar
  86. Naman, J. L., & Slevin, D. P. (1993). Entrepreneurship and the concept of fit: a model and empirical tests. Strategic Management Journal, 14, 137–153.Google Scholar
  87. Neergaard, H., Shaw, E., & Carter, S. (2005). The impact of gender, social capital and networks on business ownership: a research agenda. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 11(5), 338–357.Google Scholar
  88. Orser, B. J., Riding, A. L., & Manley, K. (2006). Women entrepreneurs and financial capital. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 30, 643–665.Google Scholar
  89. Orser, B., Spence, M., Riding, A., & Carrington, C. A. (2010). Gender and export propensity. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 34, 933–957.Google Scholar
  90. Ozgen, E., & Baron, R. A. (2007). Social sources of information in opportunity recognition: effects of mentors industry networks and professional forums. Journal of Business Venturing, 22(2), 174–192.Google Scholar
  91. Pablo-Martí, F., García-Tabuenca, A., & Crespo-Espert, J. L. (2014). Do gender-related differences exist in Spanish entrepreneurial activities? International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 6(2), 200–214.Google Scholar
  92. Podsakoff, P. M., & Organ, D. W. (1986). Self-reports in organizational research: problems and prospects. Journal of Management, 12(4), 531–544.Google Scholar
  93. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioural research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 885, 879–903.Google Scholar
  94. Politis, D. (2005). The process of entrepreneurial learning: a conceptual framework. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 29, 399–424.Google Scholar
  95. Rauch, A., Wiklund, J., Lumpkin, G. T., & Frese, M. (2009). Entrepreneurial orientation and business performance: an assessment of past research and suggestions for the future. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 33(3), 761–787.Google Scholar
  96. Renzulli, L. A., Aldrich, H., & Moody, J. (2000). Family matters: gender, networks, and entrepreneurial outcomes. Social Forces, 79(2), 523–546.Google Scholar
  97. Rodan, S., & Galunic, C. (2004). More than network structure: how knowledge heterogeneity influences managerial performance and innovativeness. Strategic Management Journal, 25, 541–562.Google Scholar
  98. Rosenbaum, G. (2013). Toward an understanding of how entrepreneurs access and use networks/social capital to internationalize: A gender perspective. In H. Etemad, T. K. Madsen, E. S. Rasmussen, & P. Servaid (Eds.), Current Issues in International Entrepreneurship (pp. 296–316). Cheltenham (UK): Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  99. Rosenkopf, L., & Nerkar, A. (2001). Beyond local search: boundary-spanning exploration and impact in the optical disk industry. Strategic Management Journal, 22, 287–306.Google Scholar
  100. Runyan, R. C., Huddleston, P., & Swinney, J. (2006). Entrepreneurial orientation and social capital as small firm strategies: a study of gender differences from a resource-based view. Entrepreneurship Management, 2, 455–477.Google Scholar
  101. Shane, S. (2000). Prior knowledge and the discovery of entrepreneurial opportunities. Organization Science, 11(4), 448–469.Google Scholar
  102. Sharma, S. (1996). Applied Multivariate Techniques. New York: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  103. Shaw, E., Marlow, S., Lam, W., & Carter, S. (2009). Gender and entrepreneurial capital: implications for firm performance. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship, 11, 25–41.Google Scholar
  104. Shepherd, D. A., & DeTienne, D. R. (2005). Prior knowledge potential financial reward and opportunity identification. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 29(1), 91–112.Google Scholar
  105. Slater, S. F., & Narver, J. C. (2000). Market oriented is more than being customer-led. Strategic Management Journal, 20, 1165–1168.Google Scholar
  106. Sonfield, M., Lussier, R., Corman, J., & McKinney, M. (2001). Gender comparisons in strategic decision-making: an empirical analysis of the entrepreneurial strategy matrix. Journal of Small Business Management, 39(2), 165–173.Google Scholar
  107. Sorenson, R. L., Folker, C. A., & Brigham, K. H. (2008). The collaborative network orientation: achieving business success through collaborative relationships. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 32, 615–634.Google Scholar
  108. Spender, J. C. (1996). Making knowledge the basis of a dynamic theory of the firm. Strategic Management Journal, 17, 45–62.Google Scholar
  109. Stam, W., Arzlanian, S., & Elfring, T. (2014). Social capital of entrepreneurs and small firm performance: a meta-analysis of contextual and methodological moderators. Journal of Business Venturing, 29(1), 152–173.Google Scholar
  110. Sullivan, D. M., & Marvel, M. R. (2011). Knowledge acquisition, network reliance, and early-stage technology venture outcomes. Journal of Management Studies, 48, 1169–1193.Google Scholar
  111. Tan, J. (2008). Breaking the “bamboo curtain” and the “glass ceiling”: the experience of women entrepreneurs in high-tech industries in an emerging market. Journal of Business Ethics, 80(3), 547–564.Google Scholar
  112. Teng, B. (2007). Corporate entrepreneurship activities through strategic alliances. Journal of Management Studies, 44(1), 119–142.Google Scholar
  113. Thorpe, R., Holt, R., Macpherson, A., & Pittaway, L. (2005). Using knowledge within small and medium-sized firms: a systematic review of the evidence. International Journal of Management Reviews, 7(4), 257–281.Google Scholar
  114. Ucbasaran, D., Westhead, P., & Wright, M. (2009). The extent and nature of opportunity identification by experienced entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing, 24, 99–115.Google Scholar
  115. Venkatraman, N., & Ramanujan, V. (1986). Measurement of business performance in strategy research: a comparison of approaches. Academy of Management Review, 11(4), 801–814.Google Scholar
  116. Verheul, I., & Thurik, A. R. (2001). Start-up capital: “Does gender matter?”. Small Business Economics, 16(4), 329–345.Google Scholar
  117. Wang, C. L. (2008). Entrepreneurial orientation, learning orientation and firm performance. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 32, 635–657.Google Scholar
  118. Watkins, J. M., & Watkins, D. S. (1986). The female entrepreneur: Her background and determinants of business choice - some British data. In J. Curran et al. (Eds.), The Survival of the Small Firm (The Economics of Survival and Entrepreneurship, Vol. 1, pp. 271–288). Aldershot: Gower Publishing.Google Scholar
  119. Watson, J. (2002). Comparing the performance of male- and female- controlled businesses: Relating outputs to inputs. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 26(3), 91–100.Google Scholar
  120. West, G. P., & Noel, T. W. (2009). The impact of knowledge resources on new venture performance. Journal of Small Business Management, 47(1), 1–22.Google Scholar
  121. Wiklund, J., & Shepherd, D. (2003). Knowledge-based resources, entrepreneurial orientation, and the performance of small and medium sized business. Strategic Management Journal, 24(13), 1307–1314.Google Scholar
  122. Wiklund, J., & Shepherd, D. (2005). Entrepreneurial orientation and small business performance: A configurational approach. Journal of Business Venturing, 20(1), 71–91.Google Scholar
  123. Yli-Renko, H., Autio, E., & Sapienza, H. J. (2001). Social capital, knowledge acquisitions, and knowledge exploitation in young technology-based firms. Strategic Management Journal, 22(6/7), 587–613.Google Scholar
  124. Zahra, S. A., & George, G. (2002). Absorptive capacity: a review, reconceptualization, and extension. Academy of Management Review, 27(2), 185–203.Google Scholar
  125. Zahra, S. A., Jennings, D. F., & Kuratko, D. F. (1999). The antecedents and consequences of firm-level entrepreneurship: the state of the field. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 24(2), 45–63.Google Scholar
  126. Zahra, S. A., Filatotchev, I., & Wright, M. (2009). How do threshold firms sustain corporate entrepreneurship? The role of boards and absorptive capacity. Journal of Business Venturing, 24(3), 248–260.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • María del Mar Fuentes-Fuentes
    • 1
  • Ana M. Bojica
    • 1
    Email author
  • Matilde Ruiz-Arroyo
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Economics and BusinessUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain

Personalised recommendations