Intrapreneurial activity is positively associated with the organizational growth, and the factors that stimulate such behaviors need to be identified. The general goal of this work is to explore the relationship of authentic leadership with employees’ intrapreneurial behavior and the intervening processes. A correlational study was carried out with 212 employees of Spanish companies, in which two cross-level mediation hypotheses were tested. The results obtained indicate that employees’ organizational identification and organizational empowerment both mediate the relationship between authentic leadership and employees’ intrapreneurial behaviors. In this work, we note the importance of including authentic leadership as an antecedent of intrapreneurship.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Ahmad, N. H., Nasurdin, A. M., & Zainal, S. R. M. (2011). The role of organizational internal ecosystem in fostering intrapreneurship spirit world. Review of Business Research, 1(5), 38–51.
Alambeigi, A., Mohammadi, M., Asadi, A., & Zarei, B. (2012). The exploration of organization factors that inspire intrapreneurship in Iranian agricultural research organization (IARO). African Journal of Agricultural Research, 7(3), 378–384.
Amo, B. W. (2005). Employee innovation behavior. Bodø graduate school of business. Bodø: Bodø Regional University.
Amo, B. W. (2010). Corporate entrepreneurship and intrapreneurship related to innovation behavior among employees. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Venturing, 2(2), 144–158.
Antoncic, B., & Hisrich, R. (2001). Intrapreneurship: construct refinement and cross-cultural validation. Journal of Business Venturing, 16(5), 495–527.
Antoncic, B., & Zorn, O. (2004). The mediating role of corporate entrepreneurship in the organizational support performance relationship: an empirical examination. Managing Global Transitions, 2(1), 5–14.
Asgari, M. H., Taleghani, M., & Mohalleh, S. G. A. (2012). The relationship between psychological empowerment of employees with corporate entrepreneurship of Guilan Payamnour University. Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research, 2(4), 3181–3187.
Avolio, B. J., & Gardner, W. L. (2005). Authentic leadership development: getting to the root of positive forms of leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(3), 315–338.
Avolio, B. J., Gardner, W. L., Walumbwa, F. O., Luthans, F., & May, D. R. (2004). Unlocking the mask: a look at the process by which authentic leaders impact follower attitudes and behaviors. The Leadership Quarterly, 15(6), 801–823.
Avolio, B. J., Reichard, R. J., Hannah, S. T., Walumbwa, F. O., & Chan, A. (2009). Meta- analytic review of leadership impact research: experimental and quasi-experimental studies. The Leadership Quarterly, 20(5), 764–784.
Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(1), 74–94.
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5(6), 1173–1182.
Bass, B. M. (1997). Does the transactional/transformational leadership paradigm transcend organizational and national boundaries? American Psychologist, 52(2), 130–139.
Bell, B. A., Morgan, G. B., Kromrey, J. D., & Ferron, J. M. (2010). The impact of small cluster size on multilevel models: a Monte Carlo examination of two-level models with binary and continuous predictors. Survey Research Methods Section, 4057-4067.
Benitez, J., Llorens, F. J., & Perez, M. N. (2010). Information technology-enabled intrapreneurship culture and firm performance. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 110(4), 550–566.
Biemann, T., Cole, M. S., & Voelpel, S. (2012). Within-group agreement: on the use (and misuse) of rWGand rWG(J) in leadership research and some best practice guidelines. The Leadership Quarterly, 23(1), 66–80.
Bliese, P. D. (2000). Within-group agreement, non-independence, and reliability: implications for data aggregation and analysis. In K. J. Klein & S. W. Kozlowski (Eds.), Multilevel theory, research, and methods in organizations (pp. 349–381). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Bosma, N., Stam, E., & Wennekers, S. (2010). Intrapreneurship: an international study. Zoetermeer, Netherlands: Scales.
Bruch, H. (2003). Leader’s action: model development and testing. IFPM- series volume 1. Munich. Rainer HamppVerlag.
Çeri-Booms, M. (2012). How can authentic leaders create organizational identification? An empirical study on Turkish employees. International Journal of Leadership Studies, 7(2), 172–190.
Černe, M., Jaklič, M. Y., & Škerlavaj, M. (2013). Authentic leadership, creativity, and innovation: a multilevel perspective. Leadership, 9(1), 63–85.
Chin, W. W. (1998). The partial least squares approach for structural equation modeling. In G. A. Marcoulides (Ed.), Modern methods for business research. Methodology for business and management (pp. 295–336). Mahwah: Erlbaum.
Cicero, L., & Pierro, A. (2007). Charismatic leadership and organizational outcomes: the mediating role of work group identification. International Journal of Psychology, 42(5), 297–306.
Covin, J. G., & Miles, M. P. (1999). Corporate entrepreneurship and the pursuit of competitive advantage. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 23(3), 47–63.
De Cremer, D., Brebels, L., & Sedikides, C. (2008). Being uncertain about what? Procedural fairness effects as a function of general uncertainty and belongingness uncertainty. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44(6), 1520–1525.
De Jong, J., & Wennekers, S. (2008). Conceptualizing entrepreneurial employee behavior. EIM- SCALES (Scientific Analysis of Entrepreneurship and SMEs).
De Jong, J. P. J., Parker, S. K., Wennekers, S., & Wu, C. (2011). Corporate entrepreneurship at the individual level: measurement and determinants. EIM research reports. Zoetermeer: EIM.
Dess, G. G., Ireland, R. D., Zahra, S. A., Floyd, S. W., Janney, J. J., & Lane, P. J. (2003). Emerging issues in corporate entrepreneurship. Journal of Management, 29(3), 351–378.
Doosje, B., Spears, R., & Ellemers, N. (2002). The dynamic and determining role of ingroup identification: responses to anticipated and actual changes in the intergroup status hierarchy. British Journal of Social Psychology, 41(1), 57–76.
Emuwa, A. (2013). Authentic leadership: commitment to supervisor, follower empowerment, and procedural justice climate. Emerging Leadership Journeys, 6(1), 45–65.
Esposito-Vinzi, V., Chin, W.W., Henseler, J., & Wang, H. (2010.) Handbook of partial least squares concepts, methods and applications: springer handbooks of computational statistics.
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: algebra and statistics. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(3), 382–388.
Fuller, J. B., Marler, L. E., & Hester, K. (2006). Promoting felt responsibility for constructive change and proactive behavior: exploring aspects of an elaborated model of work design. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27(8), 1089–1120.
Gardner, W. L., Avolio, B. J., Luthans, F., May, D. R., & Walumbwa, F. (2005). Can you see the real me? A self-based model of authentic leaders and follower development. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(3), 343–372.
Gardner, W. L., Cogliser, C. C., Davis, K. M., & Dickens, M. P. (2011). Authentic leadership: a review of the literature and research agenda. The Leadership Quarterly, 22(6), 1120–1145.
Garson, G.D (2013). Fundamentals of hierarchical linear (multilevel) modeling. In G. D. Garson, Hierarchical linear modeling guide and applications. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina State University. Sage. http://www.sagepub.com/upm-data/47528_ch_1.pdf.
Glynn, M.S., & Woodside, A. G. (Ed.). (2009). Business-to-business brand management: theory, research and executive case study exercises (Vol. 15). Emerald group publishing.
Griffith, D. M., Allen, J. O., Zimmerman, M. A., Morrel-Samuels, S., Reischl, T. M., Cohen, S. E., & Campbell, K. A. (2008). Organizational empowerment in community mobilization to address youth violence. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 34(3), 89–99.
Hackman, J. R. (1992). Group influences on individuals in organizations. In M. D. Dunnette & L. M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial organizational psychology (Vol. 3, pp. 199–267). P Alto: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, A., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate data analysis. Upper-Saddle River: Prentice Hall.
Harman, H. H. (1967). Modern factor analysis. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Hashemi, S. M. K., Nadi, H. K., Hosseini, S. M., & Rezvanfar, A. (2012). Explaining agricultural personnel’s intrapreneurial behavior: the mediating effects of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. International Journal of Business and Social Science, 3(6), 299–308.
Hisrich, R. D. (1990). Entrepreneurship/Intrapreneurship. American Psychologist, 45(2), 209–222.
Hornsby, J. S., Kuratko, D. F., & Zahra, S. A. (2002). Middle managers’ perception of the internal environment for corporate entrepreneurship: assessing a measurement scale. Journal of Business Venturing, 17(3), 253–273.
Hsiung, H. H. (2012). Authentic leadership and employee voice behavior: a multi-level psychological process. Journal of Business Ethics, 107(3), 349–361.
James, L. R., Demaree, R. G., & Wolf, G. (1984). Estimating within-group interrater reliability with and without rater bias. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69(1), 85–98.
Jensen, S. M., & Luthans, F. (2006). Relationship between entrepreneurs’ psychological capital and their authentic leadership. Journal of Managerial Issues, 18(2), 254–273.
Jones, O., & Crompton, H. (2009). Enterprise logic and small firms: a model of authentic entrepreneurial leadership. Journal of Strategy and Management, 2(4), 329–351.
Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. (1978). The social psychology of organizations (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.
Knies, E., & Leisink, P. (2013). Linking people management and extra-role behavior: results of a longitudinal study. Human Resource Management Journal, 24(1), 57–76. doi:10.1111/1748-8583.12023.
Kozlowski, S. W. J., & Klein, K. J. (2000). A multilevel approach to theory and research in organizations: contextual, temporal, and emergent processes. In K. J. Klein & S. W. J. Kozlowski (Eds.), Multilevel theory, research and methods in organizations: foundations, extensions, and new directions (pp. 3–90). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Kuo, H. T., Yin, T. J. C., & Li, I. C. (2008). Relationship between organizational empowerment and job satisfaction perceived by nursing assistants at long-term care facilities. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17(22), 3059–3066.
Kuratko, D. F., Hornsby, J. S., & Bishop, J. W. (2005). An examination of managers’ entrepreneurial actions and job satisfaction. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 1(3), 275–291.
Kuratko, D. F., Covin, J. C., & Garrett, R. P. (2009). Corporate venturing: insights from actual performance. Business Horizons, 52(5), 459–467.
Leroy, H., Anseel, F., Gardner, W. L., & Sels, L. (2012). Authentic leadership, authentic followership, basic need satisfaction, and work role performance: A cross-level study. Journal of Management, 0149206312457822.
Luthans, F., & Avolio, B. (2003). Authentic leadership development. In K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, & R. E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship. Foundations of a new discipline (pp. 241–259). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.
Mael, F., & Ashforth, B. E. (1992). Alumni and their alma mater: a partial test of the reformulated model of organizational identification. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 13, 103–123.
Matthews, R. A., Diaz, W. M., & Cole, S. G. (2003). The organizational empowerment scale. Personnel Review, 32(3), 297–318.
Mendoza Sierra, M. I. (2002). El empowerment psicológico en el trabajo [Psychological empowerment at work]. Revista Andaluza de Relaciones Laborales, 11, 157–168.
Mendoza, M. I., León, J. C., Orgambídez, A., & Borrego, Y. (2009). Evidencias de validez de la adaptación española de la organizational empowerment scale [Validity evidence of the spanish adaptation of the organizational empowerment scale]. Revista de Psicología del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones, 25(1), 17–28.
Menzel, H. C., Aaltio, L., & Ulijn, J. M. (2007). On the way to creativity: engineers as intrapreneurs in organizations. Technovation, 27(12), 732–743.
Miller, D. (1983). The correlates of entrepreneurship in three types of firms. Management Science, 29(7), 770–791.
Miller, D. (2011). Miller (1983) revisited: a reflection on EO research and some suggestions for the future. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 35(5), 873–894.
Mitteness, C. R., Sudek, R., & Baucus, M. S. (2010). Entrepreneurs as authentic transformational leaders: critical behaviors for gaining angel capital. Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, 30(5), 1–16.
Morgeson, F. P., Delaney-Klinger, K., & Hemingway, M. A. (2005). The importance of job autonomy, cognitive ability, and job-related skill for predicting role breadth and job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(2), 399.
Moriano, J. A., Topa, G., Valero, E., & Lévy, J. P. (2009). Identificación organizacional y conducta “intraemprendedora” [Organizational identification and intrapreneurial behavior]. Anales de Psicología, 25(2), 277–287.
Moriano, J. A., Molero, F., & Lévy Mangin, J. P. (2011a). Liderazgo auténtico: concepto y validación del cuestionario ALQ en España [Authentic leadership: Concept and validation of the ALQ in Spain]. Psicothema, 23(2), 336–341.
Moriano, J. A., Molero, F., Topa, G., & Lévy Mangin, J. P. (2011b). The influence of transformational leadership and organizational identification on intrapreneurship. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 14, 1–17. doi:10.1007/s11365-011-0196-x.
Morrison, E. W., & Phelps, C. C. (1999). Taking charge at work: extra-role efforts to initiate workplace change. Academy of Management Journal, 42(4), 403–419.
Pardo-Merino, A., Ruíz-Díaz, M. A., & San Martín-Castellanos, R. (2007). Cómo ajustar e interpretar modelos multinivel con SPSS [How to fit and interpret multilevel models with SPSS]. Psicothema, 19(2), 308–321.
Peterson, N. A., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2004). Beyond the individual: toward a nomological network of organizational empowerment. American Journal of Community Psychology, 34(1–2), 129–145.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879–903. doi:10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879.
Ramamoorthy, N., Flood, P. C., Slattery, T., & Sardessai, R. (2005). Determinants of innovative work behavior: development and test of an integrated model. Creativity and Innovation Management, 14(2), 142–150.
Raub, S., & Robert, C. (2010). Differential effects of empowering leadership on in-role and extra-role employee behaviors: exploring the role of psychological empowerment and power values. Human Relations, 63(11), 1743–1770.
Rego, A., Sousa, F., Marques, C., Pina, & Cunha, M. (2012). Authentic leadership promoting employees’ psychological capital and creativity. Journal of Business Research, 65(3), 429–437.
Rego, A., Vitória, A., Magalhães, A. Y., Ribeiro, N., & Pinae Cunha, M. (2013). Are authentic leaders associated with more virtuous, committed and potent teams? The Leadership Quarterly, 24(1), 61–79.
Rigtering, J. P. C., & Weitzel, U. (2013). Work context and employee behavior as antecedents for intrapreneurship. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 9(3), 337–360.
Riketta, M. (2005). Organizational identification: a meta-analysis. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66(2), 358–384.
Roberg, L.C. (2007). Organizational empowerment and hardiness as predictors of innovativeness. San Jose, CA: San Jose State University. Master’s Thesis. Paper 3436.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68–78.
Safari, K., Rastegar, A., & Jahromi, R. G. (2010). The relationship between psychological empowerment and entrepreneurship among clerks of Fars Payame Noor University. Procedia- Social and Behavioral Sciences, 5(6), 798–802.
Seibert, S., Kraimer, M., & Crant, J. (2001). What do proactive people do? A longitudinal model linking proactive personality and career success. Personnel Psychology, 54(4), 845–874.
Seshadri, D. V. R., & Tripathy, A. (2006). Innovation through intrapreneurship: the road less travelled. Vikalpa, 31(1), 17.
Sharma, P., & Chrisman, J. (1999). Toward a reconciliation of the definitional issues in the field of corporate entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 23(3), 11–27.
Sluss, D. M., & Ashforth, B. E. (2008). How relational and organizational identification converge: processes and conditions. Organization Science, 19(6), 807–823.
Smith, C. A., Organ, D. W., & Near, J. P. (1983). Organizational citizenship behavior: its nature and antecedents. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68(4), 653.
Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equation models. In S. Leinhardt (Ed.), Sociological methodology (pp. 290–312). Washington: American Sociological Association.
Spreitzer, G. M. (1995). Psychological empowerment in the workplace: dimensions, measurement and validation. Academy of Management Journal, 38(5), 1441–1465.
Stull, M., & Aram, J. D. (2010). Exploring trust as an influencing mechanism of intrapreneurship. International Journal of Management and Marketing Research, 3(3), 17–38.
Stull, M., & Singh, J. (2005). Intrapreneurship in nonprofit organizations examining the factors that facilitate entrepreneurial behavior among employees. Retrieved May, 24, 2005 from: http://weatherhead.case.edu/edm/archive/details.cfm?id=7635.
Theall, K. P., Scribner, R., Broyles, S., Yu, Q., Chotalia, J., Simonsen, N., & Carlin, B. P. (2011). Impact of small group size on neighbourhood influences in multilevel models. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 65(8), 688–695.
Topa, G., Moriano, J. A., Morales, J. F., & Moreno, A. (2010). Identificaciones múltiples y ciudadanía en el trabajo: mediación de las Fuentes de apoyo social [multiple identifications and citizenship at work: mediation of the sources of social support]. Revista Latinoamericana de Psicología, 42(3), 427–436.
Van Dyne, L., Cummings, L. L., & McLean Parks, J. (1995). Extra role behaviors: in pursuit of construct and definitional clarity (A bridge over muddied waters). In L. L. Cummings & B. M. Staw (Eds.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 17, pp. 215–285). Greenwich: JAI Press.
Wakkee, I., Elfring, T., & Monaghan, S. (2010). Creating entrepreneurial employees in traditional service sectors. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 6(1), 1–21.
Walumbwa, F. O., Avolio, B. J., Gardner, W. L., Wernsing, T. S., & Peterson, S. J. (2008). Authentic leadership: development and analysis of a multidimensional theory-based measure. Journal of Management, 34(1), 89–126.
Walumbwa, F. O., Wang, P., Wang, H., Avolio, B. J., & Schaubroeck, J. (2010). Psychological processes linking authentic leadership to follower behaviors. Leadership Quarterly, 21(5), 901–914.
Walumbwa, F. O., Mayer, D. M., Wang, P., Wang, H., Workman, K., & Christensen, A. L. (2011). Linking ethical leadership to employee performance: the roles of leader-member exchange, self-efficacy, and organizational identification. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 115, 204–213.
Wong, C. A., & Cummings, G. G. (2009). The influence of authentic leadership behaviors on trust and work outcomes of healthcare staff. Journal of Leadership Studies, 3(2), 6–23.
Wong, C. A., Spence-Laschinger, H. K., & Cummings, G. G. (2010). Authentic leadership and nurses’ voice behavior and perceptions of care quality. Journal of Nursing Management, 18(8), 889–900.
Yammarino, F. J., Dionne, S. D., Schriesheim, C. A., & Dansereau, F. (2008). Authentic leadership and positive organizational behavior: a meso, multi-level perspective. Leadership Quarterly, 19, 693–707.
Zahra, S. A. (1991). Predictors and financial outcomes of corporate entrepreneurship: an exploratory study. Journal of Business Venturing, 6(4), 259–285.
Zahra, S. A., & Covin, J. C. (1995). Contextual influences on the corporate entrepreneurship- performance relationship: a longitudinal analysis. Journal of Business Venturing, 10(1), 43–58.
Zahra, S. A., Jennings, D. F., & Kuratko, D. F. (1999). The antecedents and consequences of firm level entrepreneurship: the state of the field. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 24(2), 45–66.
About this article
Cite this article
Edú Valsania, S., Moriano, J.A. & Molero, F. Authentic leadership and intrapreneurial behavior: cross-level analysis of the mediator effect of organizational identification and empowerment. Int Entrep Manag J 12, 131–152 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-014-0333-4
- Authentic leadership
- Intrapreneurial behavior
- Organizational empowerment
- Organizational identification