Managers play a vital role in encouraging and supporting the initiatives of individual employees to explore new opportunities, to develop new products or to improve work procedures for the benefit of the organization. This study examines the influence of manager leadership styles on employee intrapreneurial behavior and the mediating role of organizational identification. Partial Least Squares modeling was used to analyze the data from 186 employees belonging to several Spanish public and private organizations. The results show that transformational leadership has a positive impact on employee intrapreneurial behavior, whereas transactional leadership negatively influences it. Furthermore, these effects are found to be partially mediated by organizational identification.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Antoncic, B., & Hisrich, R. (2001). Intrapreneurship: construct refinement and cross-cultural validation. Journal of Business Venturing, 16(5), 495–527.
Ashforth, B., & Mael, F. (1989). Social identity theory and the organization. Academy of Management Review, 14(1), 20–39.
Ashforth, B., Harrison, S. H., & Corley, K. G. (2008). Identification in organizations: an examination of four fundamental questions. Journal of Management, 34(3), 325–374.
Avolio, B. J., & Bass, B. (2002). Manual for the multifactor leadership questionnaire (Form 5X). Redwood City: Mind Garden.
Avolio, B. J., Bass, B. M., & Jung, D. I. (1999). Re-examining the components of transformational and transactional leadership using the multifactor leadership. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 72, 441–462.
Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173–1182.
Bass, B. M. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: The Free Press.
Bass, B. M., & Avolio, B. J. (1994). Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership. Thousands Oaks: Sage.
Bass, B. M., & Bass, R. (2008). The bass handbook of leadership: theory, research, and managerial applications (4th ed.). New York: Free Press.
Chin, W. W. (1998). The partial least squares approach for structural equation modeling. In G. A. Marcoulides (Ed.), Modern methods for business research (pp. 295–336). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Cicero, L., & Pierro, A. (2007). Charismatic leadership and organizational outcomes: the mediating role of employees’ work-group identification. International Journal of Psychology, 42(5), 297–306.
Covin, J. G., & Slevin, D. P. (1991). A conceptual model of entrepreneurship as firm behavior. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 16(1), 7–25.
Elenkov, D. S., & Manev, I. M. (2005). Top management leadership and influence on innovation: the role of sociocultural context. Journal of Management, 31(3), 381–402.
Epitropaki, O., & Martin, R. (2005). The moderating role of individual differences in the relation between transformational/transactional leadership perceptions and organizational identification. The Leadership Quarterly, 16(4), 569–589.
Eyal, O., & Kark, R. (2004). How do transformational leaders transform organizations? A study of the relationship between leadership and entrepreneurship. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 3(3), 211–235.
Falk, R. F., & Miller, N. B. (1992). A primer for soft modeling. Akron: The University of Akron Press.
Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error: algebra and statistics. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(3), 39–50.
Guth, W. D., & Ginsberg, A. (1990). Corporate entrepreneurship. Strategic Management Journal, 11, 5–15 (Corporate Entrepreneurship).
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2006). Multivariate data analysis (6th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson.
Haslam, S. A. (2001). Psychology in organizations. The social identity approach. London: Sage.
Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sinkovics, R. R. (2009). The use of partial least squares path modeling in international marketing. Advances in International Marketing, 20, 277–319. doi:10.1108/S1474-7979.
Hisrich, R. (1990). Entrepreneurship/Intrapreneurship. American Psychologist, 45(2), 209–229.
Hogg, M. A. (2001). A social identity theory of leadership. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 5, 184–200.
Hogg, M. A., & Terry, D. J. (2001). Social identity processes in organizational contexts. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.
Hornsby, J. S., Naffziger, D. W., Kuratko, D. F., & Montagno, R. V. (1993). An interactive model of the corporate entrepreneurship process. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 17(2), 29–37.
Hornsby, J. S., Kuratko, D. F., & Zahra, S. A. (2002). Middle manager’s perception of the internal environment for corporate entrepreneurship: assessing a measurement scale. Journal of Business Venturing, 17(1), 253–273.
Howell, J. M., & Higgins, C. A. (1990). Champions of technological innovation. Administrative Science Quarterly, 35(2), 317–341.
Jung, D. I. (2001). Transformational and transactional leadership and their effects on creativity in groups. Creativity Research Journal, 13(2), 185–195.
Jung, D. I., Chow, C., & Wu, A. (2003). The role of transformational leadership in enhancing organizational innovation: hypotheses and some preliminary findings. The Leadership Quarterly, 14, 525–544.
Kark, R., Shamir, B., & Chen, G. (2003). The two faces of transformational leadership: empowerment and dependency. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(2), 246–255.
Kearney, C., Hisrich, R., & Roche, F. (2008). A conceptual model of public sector corporate entrepreneurship. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 4, 295–313. doi:10.10007/s11365-007-0048-x.
Koh, W. L., Steers, R. M., & Terborg, J. R. (1995). The effects of transformation leadership on teacher attitudes and student performance in Singapore. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 16(4), 319–333.
Krauss, S. I., Frese, M., Friedrich, C., & Unger, J. M. (2005). Entrepreneurial orientation: a psychological model of success among southern African small business owners. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 14(3), 315–344.
Kuratko, D. F., Montagno, R. V., & Hornsby, J. S. (1990). Developing an intrapreneurial assessment instrument for an effective corporate entrepreneurial environment. Strategic Management Journal, 11, 49–58 (Special Issue Summer).
Kuratko, D. F., Hornsby, J. S., & Bishop, J. W. (2005a). An examination of managers’ entrepreneurial actions and job satisfaction. The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 1(3), 275–291.
Kuratko, D. F., Ireland, R. D., Covin, J. G., & Hornsby, J. S. (2005b). A model of middle-level managers’ entrepreneurial behavior. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29(6), 699–716. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6520.2005.00104.x.
Ling, Y., Simsek, Z., Lubatkin, M. H., & Veiga, J. F. (2008). Transformational leadership’s role in promoting corporate entrepreneurship: examining the CEO-TMT interface. Academy of Management Journal, 51(3), 557–576.
Lowe, K., Kroeck, K., & Sivasubramaniam, N. (1996). Effectiveness correlates of transformational and transactional leadership: a meta-analytic review. The Leadership Quarterly, 7, 385–425.
Lumpkin, G. T., & Dess, G. G. (1996). Clarifying the entrepreneurial orientation construct and linking it to performance. Academy of Management Review, 21(1), 135–172.
Mael, F., & Ashforth, B. (1992). Alumni and their alma mater: a partial test of the reformulated model of organizational identification. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 13(1), 103–123.
Martin, R., & Epitropaki, O. (2001). Role of organizational identification on implicit leadership theories (ILTs), transformational leadership and work attitudes. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 4(3), 247–262.
Molero, F., Cuadrado, I., Navas, M., & Morales, J. F. (2007). Relations and effects of transformational leadership: a comparative analysis with traditional leadership styles. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 10(2), 358–368.
Moriano, J. A., Topa, G., Valero, E., & Lévy-Mangin, J. P. (2009). Identificación organizacional y Conducta “Intraemprendedora”. Anales de Psicología, 25, 277–287.
Morris, M. H., & Sexton, D. L. (1996). The concept of entrepreneurial intensity: implications for company performance. Journal of Business Research, 36(1), 5–13.
Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Parker, S. C. (2011). Intrapreneurship or entrepreneurship? Journal of Business Venturing, 26(1), 19–34. doi:10.1016/j.jbusvent.2009.07.003.
Pillai, R., Schriesheim, C., & Williams, E. (1999). Fairness perceptions and trust as mediators for transformational and transactional leadership: a two sample study. Journal of Management, 25(6), 897–933.
Pinchot, G. (1985). Intrapreneuring: why you don’t to leave the corporation to become an entrepreneur. New York: Harper & Row.
Podsakoff, P., MacKenzie, S., Moorman, R., & Fetter, R. (1990). Transformational leader behavior and their effects on followers’ trust in leader, satisfaction and organizational citizenship behaviors. The Leadership Quarterly, 1, 107–142.
Rauch, A., Wiklund, J., Lumpkin, G., & Frese, M. (2009). Entrepreneurial orientation and business performance: an assessment of past research and suggestions for the future. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 33(3), 761–787. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6520.2009.00308.x.
Riketta, M. (2005). Organizational identification: A meta-analysis. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66(2), 358–384.
Ringle, C. M., Wende, S., & Will, A. (2005). SmartPLS 2.0 (beta). Hamburg: University of Hamburg.
Sarros, J. C., Tanewski, G. A., Winter, R. P., Santora, J. C., & Densten, I. L. (2002). Work alienation and organizational leadership. British Journal of Management, 13(4), 285–304.
Shamir, B., House, R. J., & Arthur, M. B. (1993). The motivational effects of charismatic leadership: a self-concept based theory. Organization Science, 4(4), 577–594.
Shin, S. J., & Zhou, J. (2003). Transformational leadership, conservation, and creativity: evidence from Korea. The Academy of Management Journal, 46(6), 703–714.
Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equation models. Sociological Methodology, 13, 290–312.
Spreitzer, G. M., Janasz, S. C. D., & Quinn, R. E. (1999). Empowered to lead: the role of psychological empowerment in leadership. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20(4), 511–526.
Stull, M., & Singh, J. (2005). Intrapreneurship in nonprofit organizations examining the factors that facilitate entrepreneurial behaviour among employees. http://weatherhead.case.edu/edm/archive/details.cfm?id=7635. Accessed May 24 2005.
Topa, G., Moriano, J. A., & Morales, J. F. (2008). Social identity and perceived support in organizations: their effects on citizenship behaviors. Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 42(2), 363–370.
van Knippenberg, D., & Ellemers, N. (2004). Social identity and group performance. Identification as the key to group-oriented effort. In A. Haslam, D. van Knippenberg, M. J. Platow, & N. Ellemers (Eds.), Social identity at work. Developing theory for organizational practices (pp. 29–59). New York: Psychology Press.
van Knippenberg, D., & van Schie, E. C. (2000). Foci and correlates of organizational identification. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 73, 137–147.
Wakkee, I., Elfring, T., & Monaghan, S. (2008). Creating entrepreneurial employees in traditional service sectors. The role of coaching and self-efficacy. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 6, 1–21. doi:10.1007/s11365-008-0078-z.
Wold, H. (1985). Systems analysis by partial least squares. In P. Nijkamp, H. Leitner, & N. Wrigley (Eds.), Measuring the unmeasurable (pp. 221–251). Dordrecht: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.
About this article
Cite this article
Moriano, J.A., Molero, F., Topa, G. et al. The influence of transformational leadership and organizational identification on intrapreneurship. Int Entrep Manag J 10, 103–119 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-011-0196-x