Entrepreneurship education and the creation of an enterprise culture: provisional results from an experiment in Egypt


The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Report (2008) for Egypt identified education and training as one of the main constraining factors to entrepreneurship development and the creation of an entrepreneurial culture in the country. Of the 31 countries participating in the National Experts’ Survey, Egypt was ranked in last place in terms of the contribution of the education system and the number one recommendation was that it needs to be reformed. Hence, the study examines the Entrepreneurial Tendencies of students of business administration at the British University in Egypt using the Durham University General Enterprising Tendency Test. It reveals that the entrepreneurial propensity of the Egyptian students is somewhat higher than that of their counterparts in the UK, despite the prevailing traditional “knowledge acquisition” pedagogy. When exposed to a more entrepreneurial style of teaching and learning, the students’ GET scores increased by about 8 per cent over a 12 week period, suggesting that if a change in the educational paradigm could be effected, it should be possible to effect a change in the way students think and behave, thereby helping bring about an entrepreneurial culture. The study examines the brain dominance of the students and makes proposals for future research.

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The authors would like to acknowledge the support of Ms Rasha Hassan who administered the surveys and prepared the data.

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Corresponding author

Correspondence to David A. Kirby.

Appendix 1

Appendix 1

Explanations of the Durham University GET Test Measures

Each section assesses particular attributes. A high score in any category means the person has many of the qualities which that particular section has been measuring. The sections are:-

Section 1: Need for Achievement

Maximum Score—12, Average Score—9

  • Forward Looking

  • Self Sufficient

  • Optimistic

  • Task Oriented

  • Results Oriented

  • Restless and energetic

  • Self confident

  • Persistent and determined

  • Dedicated to completing a task.

Section 2: Need for autonomy/independence

Maximum Score—6, Average score—4

  • Unconventional

  • Works alone

  • Needs to do “own thing”

  • Dislikes taking orders

  • Likes to make up own mind

  • Does not bow to group pressure

  • Stubborn and determined

Section 3: Creative Tendency

Maximum Score 12, Average Score—8

  • Imaginative and innovative

  • Tendency to daydream

  • Versatile and curious

  • Lots of ideas

  • Intuitive and guess well

  • Enjoy challenges

  • Like novelty and change.

Section 4: Moderate/calculated risk-taking

Maximum Score—12, Average Score—8

  • Act on incomplete information

  • Judge when incomplete data are sufficient

  • Accurately assess own capabilities

  • Neither over-or under-ambitious

  • Evaluate likely benefits against likely costs

  • Set challenging but attainable goals

Section 5: Drive and Determination

Maximum Score—12, Average score—8

  • Take advantage of opportunities

  • Discount fate

  • Make own luck

  • Self confident

  • Believe in controlling own destiny

  • Equate results with effort.

  • Show considerable determination.

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Kirby, D.A., Ibrahim, N. Entrepreneurship education and the creation of an enterprise culture: provisional results from an experiment in Egypt. Int Entrep Manag J 7, 181–193 (2011). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-010-0153-0

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  • Entrepreneurship
  • Education
  • Culture
  • Egypt
  • GET brain dominance