Culture and entrepreneurial orientation: a multi-country study

  • Sang M. LeeEmail author
  • Seong-bae Lim
  • Raghuvar D. Pathak
Original Article


Entrepreneurial orientation (EO) has been proven as an essential attribute of high performing firms, and the role of culture has been highlighted for generating robust EO. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of culture by identifying differences among the selected nations in terms of EO dimensions. This is an empirical study based on the data collected from university students in the U.S., Korea, Fiji, India, and Malaysia representing nations with significantly different cultural contexts. The result showed significant differences among the nations in most EO dimensions. This implies that customized education approaches based on unique cultural context are needed for developing EO among college students.


Entrepreneurial orientation Culture Cross-cultural study Multi-country study 



We would like to recognize the following scholars who helped us collecting the data used in this study: Dr. Ahmad Z. bin Ismail, Bank Rakyat School of Entrepreneurship, Malaysia; Dr. Narendra Reddy, The University of the South Pacific, Fiji; Dr. Seema Zokarkar, Alard Institute of management Sciences, India


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Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sang M. Lee
    • 1
    Email author
  • Seong-bae Lim
    • 2
  • Raghuvar D. Pathak
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of ManagementUniversity of Nebraska-LincolnLincolnUSA
  2. 2.Bill Greehey School of Business, St. Mary’s UniversitySan AntonioUSA
  3. 3.Department of Management & Public AdministrationUniversity of the South PacificSuvaFiji

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