Lipotoxicity, aging, and muscle contractility: does fiber type matter?

Abstract

Sarcopenia is a universal characteristic of the aging process and is often accompanied by increases in whole-body adiposity. These changes in body composition have important clinical implications, given that loss of muscle and gain of fat mass are both significantly and independently associated with declining physical performance as well as an increased risk for disability, hospitalizations, and mortality in older individuals. This increased fat mass is not exclusively stored in adipose depots but may become deposited in non-adipose tissues, such as skeletal muscle, when the oxidative capacity of the adipose tissue itself is exceeded. The redistributed adipose tissue is thought to exert detrimental local effects on the muscle environment given the close proximity. Thus, sarcopenia observed with aging may be better defined in the context of loss of muscle quality rather than loss of muscle quantity per se. In this perspective, we briefly review the age-related physiological changes in cellularity, secretory profiles, and inflammatory status of adipose tissue which drive lipotoxicity (spillover) of skeletal muscle and then provide evidence of how this may affect specific fiber type contractility. We focus on biological contributors (cellular machinery) to contractility for which there is some evidence of vulnerability to lipid stress distinguishing between fiber types.

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Correspondence to Christy S. Carter.

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Carter, C.S., Justice, J.N. & Thompson, L. Lipotoxicity, aging, and muscle contractility: does fiber type matter?. GeroScience 41, 297–308 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11357-019-00077-z

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Keywords

  • Lipotoxicity
  • Muscle fiber types
  • Aging
  • Muscle quality