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GeroScience

, Volume 41, Issue 3, pp 297–308 | Cite as

Lipotoxicity, aging, and muscle contractility: does fiber type matter?

  • Christy S. CarterEmail author
  • Jamie N. Justice
  • LaDora Thompson
Review Article

Abstract

Sarcopenia is a universal characteristic of the aging process and is often accompanied by increases in whole-body adiposity. These changes in body composition have important clinical implications, given that loss of muscle and gain of fat mass are both significantly and independently associated with declining physical performance as well as an increased risk for disability, hospitalizations, and mortality in older individuals. This increased fat mass is not exclusively stored in adipose depots but may become deposited in non-adipose tissues, such as skeletal muscle, when the oxidative capacity of the adipose tissue itself is exceeded. The redistributed adipose tissue is thought to exert detrimental local effects on the muscle environment given the close proximity. Thus, sarcopenia observed with aging may be better defined in the context of loss of muscle quality rather than loss of muscle quantity per se. In this perspective, we briefly review the age-related physiological changes in cellularity, secretory profiles, and inflammatory status of adipose tissue which drive lipotoxicity (spillover) of skeletal muscle and then provide evidence of how this may affect specific fiber type contractility. We focus on biological contributors (cellular machinery) to contractility for which there is some evidence of vulnerability to lipid stress distinguishing between fiber types.

Keywords

Lipotoxicity Muscle fiber types Aging Muscle quality 

Notes

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Copyright information

© American Aging Association 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medicine, Division of Gerontology, Geriatrics and Palliative Care, School of MedicineUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  2. 2.Department of Internal Medicine, Section on Gerontology and Geriatrics, and the Sticht Center for Healthy Aging and Alzheimer’s PreventionWake Forest School of MedicineWinston-SalemUSA
  3. 3.Department of Physical Therapy and Athletic TrainingBoston UniversityBostonUSA

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