Heterogeneity in resistance training-induced muscle strength and mass responses in men and women of different ages
- 1k Downloads
Physical activity recommendations for public health include typically muscle-strengthening activities for a minimum of 2 days a week. The range of inter-individual variation in responses to resistance training (RT) aiming to improve health and well-being requires to be investigated. The purpose of this study was to quantify high and low responders for RT-induced changes in muscle size and strength and to examine possible effects of age and sex on these responses. Previously collected data of untrained healthy men and women (age 19 to 78 years, n = 287 with 72 controls) were pooled for the present study. Muscle size and strength changed during RT are 4.8 ± 6.1 % (range from −11 to 30 %) and 21.1 ± 11.5 % (range from −8 to 60 %) compared to pre-RT, respectively. Age and sex did not affect to the RT responses. Fourteen percent and 12 % of the subjects were defined as high responders (>1 standard deviation (SD) from the group mean) for the RT-induced changes in muscle size and strength, respectively. When taking into account the results of non-training controls (upper 95 % CI), 29 and 7 % of the subjects were defined as low responders for the RT-induced changes in muscle size and strength, respectively. The muscle size and strength responses varied extensively between the subjects regardless of subject’s age and sex. Whether these changes are associated with, e.g., functional capacity and metabolic health improvements due to RT requires further studies.
KeywordsIndividual variation Muscle hypertrophy Responders Aging
Studies included in the present investigation were funded by the following foundations: The Finnish Ministry of Culture and Education; Finnish Cultural Foundation; Ellen and Artturi Nyyssönen Foundation, Finland; Polar Electro Oy; Juho Vainio Foundation, Finland; Central Finland Health Care District, Jyväskylä, Finland; Sport Institute Foundation, Finland; Yrjö Jahnsson Foundation, Finland; and National Doctoral Programme of Musculoskeletal Disorders and Biomaterials, Finland.
Compliance with ethical standards
Subjects were carefully informed about the design of the study with special information on possible risks and benefits both verbally and in writing, and they signed a written consent form before participation in the study. The studies were conducted according to the Declaration of Helsinki and were approved by the Ethics Committee of the University of Jyväskylä, Finland, and/or by the Ethics Committee of the Central Finland Health Care District.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- Ahtiainen JP, Hulmi JJ, Kraemer WJ, Lehti M, Pakarinen A, Mero AA, Karavirta L, Sillanpää E, Selänne H, Alen M et al (2009) Strength, [corrected] endurance or combined training elicit diverse skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain isoform proportion but unaltered androgen receptor concentration in older men. Int J Sports Med 30:879–887. doi: 10.1055/s-0029-1238290 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ahtiainen JP, Hulmi JJ, Kraemer WJ, Lehti M, Nyman K, Selänne H, Alen M, Pakarinen A, Komulainen J, Kovanen V et al (2011) Heavy resistance exercise training and skeletal muscle androgen receptor expression in younger and older men. Steroids 76:183–192. doi: 10.1016/j.steroids.2010.10.012 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Davidsen PK, Gallagher IJ, Hartman JW, Tarnopolsky MA, Dela F, Helge JW, Timmons JA, Phillips SM (2011) High responders to resistance exercise training demonstrate differential regulation of skeletal muscle microRNA expression. J Appl Physiol (1985) 110:309–317. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00901.2010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Devaney JM, Tosi LL, Fritz DT, Gordish-Dressman HA, Jiang S, Orkunoglu-Suer FE, Gordon AH, Harmon BT, Thompson PD, Clarkson PM et al (2009) Differences in fat and muscle mass associated with a functional human polymorphism in a post-transcriptional BMP2 gene regulatory element. J Cell Biochem 107:1073–1082. doi: 10.1002/jcb.22209 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Garber CE, Blissmer B, Deschenes MR, Franklin BA, Lamonte MJ, Lee IM, Nieman DC, Swain DP, American College of Sports Medicine (2011) American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: guidance for prescribing exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc 43:1334–1359. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e318213fefb CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Häkkinen K, Kallinen M, Izquierdo M, Jokelainen K, Lassila H, Mälkiä E, Kraemer WJ, Newton RU, Alen M (1998) Changes in agonist-antagonist EMG, muscle CSA, and force during strength training in middle-aged and older people. J Appl Physiol (1985) 84:1341–1349Google Scholar
- Häkkinen K, Kraemer WJ, Newton RU, Alen M (2001b) Changes in electromyographic activity, muscle fibre and force production characteristics during heavy resistance/power strength training in middle-aged and older men and women. Acta Physiol Scand 171:51–62. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-201X.2001.00781.x PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Holviala J, Häkkinen A, Karavirta L, Nyman K, Izquierdo M, Gorostiaga EM, Avela J, Korhonen J, Knuutila VP, Kraemer WJ et al (2010) Effects of combined strength and endurance training on treadmill load carrying walking performance in aging men. J Strength Cond Res 24:1584–1595. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181dba178 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Holviala J, Kraemer WJ, Sillanpää E, Karppinen H, Avela J, Kauhanen A, Häkkinen A, Häkkinen K (2012) Effects of strength, endurance and combined training on muscle strength, walking speed and dynamic balance in aging men. Eur J Appl Physiol 112:1335–1347. doi: 10.1007/s00421-011-2089-7 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Karavirta L, Häkkinen A, Sillanpää E, Garcia-Lopez D, Kauhanen A, Haapasaari A, Alen M, Pakarinen A, Kraemer WJ, Izquierdo M et al (2011a) Effects of combined endurance and strength training on muscle strength, power and hypertrophy in 40-67-year-old men. Scand J Med Sci Sports 21:402–411. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.01059.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mero AA, Hulmi JJ, Salmijärvi H, Katajavuori M, Haverinen M, Holviala J, Ridanpää T, Häkkinen K, Kovanen V, Ahtiainen JP et al (2013) Resistance training induced increase in muscle fiber size in young and older men. Eur J Appl Physiol 113:641–650. doi: 10.1007/s00421-012-2466-x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Petrella JK, Kim JS, Mayhew DL, Cross JM, Bamman MM (2008) Potent myofiber hypertrophy during resistance training in humans is associated with satellite cell-mediated myonuclear addition: a cluster analysis. J Appl Physiol (1985) 104:1736–1742. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.01215.2007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Raue U, Trappe TA, Estrem ST, Qian HR, Helvering LM, Smith RC, Trappe S (2012) Transcriptome signature of resistance exercise adaptations: mixed muscle and fiber type specific profiles in young and old adults. J Appl Physiol (1985) 112:1625–1636. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00435.2011 CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Sillanpää E, Häkkinen A, Nyman K, Mattila M, Cheng S, Karavirta L, Laaksonen DE, Huuhka N, Kraemer WJ, Häkkinen K (2008) Body composition and fitness during strength and/or endurance training in older men. Med Sci Sports Exerc 40:950–958. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e318165c854 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sillanpää E, Häkkinen A, Laaksonen DE, Karavirta L, Kraemer WJ, Häkkinen K (2010) Serum basal hormone concentrations, nutrition and physical fitness during strength and/or endurance training in 39-64-year-old women. Int J Sports Med 31:110–117. doi: 10.1055/s-0029-1242811 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Van Deveire KN, Scranton SK, Kostek MA, Angelopoulos TJ, Clarkson PM, Gordon PM, Moyna NM, Visich PS, Zoeller RF, Thompson PD et al (2012) Variants of the ankyrin repeat domain 6 gene (ANKRD6) and muscle and physical activity phenotypes among European-derived American adults. J Strength Cond Res 26:1740–1748. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e31825c2bef CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Walsh S, Haddad CJ, Kostek MA, Angelopoulos TJ, Clarkson PM, Gordon PM, Moyna NM, Visich PS, Zoeller RF, Seip RL et al (2012) Leptin and leptin receptor genetic variants associate with habitual physical activity and the arm body composition response to resistance training. Gene 510:66–70. doi: 10.1016/j.gene.2012.08.020 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar