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Exploring soil radon (Rn) concentrations and their connection to geological and meteorological factors

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The relationship between soil radon and meteorological parameters in a region can provide insight into natural processes occurring between the lithosphere and the atmosphere. Understanding this relationship can help models establish more realistic results, rather than depending on theoretical consequences. Radon variation can be complicated to model due to the various physical variables which can affect it, posing a limitation in atmospheric studies. To predict Rn variation from meteorological parameters, a hybrid mod el called multiANN, which is a combination of multi-regression and artificial neural network (ANN) models, is established. The model was trained with 70% of the data and tested on the remaining 30%, and its robustness was tested using the Monte-Carlo method. The regions with low performance are identified and possibly related to seismic events. This model can be a good candidate for predicting Rn concentrations from meteorological parameters and establishing the lower boundary conditions in seismo-ionospheric coupling models.

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Data availability

The earthquake data used in this study can be accessed from Boğaziçi University at the following URL: The meteorological data utilized in this research can be obtained from the Turkish State Meteorological Service website: Additionally, the Rn data used in this study is available from AFAD-Republic of Türkiye Ministry of Interior Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency at the following website:


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All authors contributed to the study conception and design. The introduction section was written by I.I.N. Methodology and results were designed and prepared by A.M. and I. Y.M. The abstract and conclusion were done by S.J.D. The first draft of the manuscript was written by S.J.D., and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Salim Jibrin Danbatta.

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Muhammad, A., Danbatta, S.J., Muhammad, I.Y. et al. Exploring soil radon (Rn) concentrations and their connection to geological and meteorological factors. Environ Sci Pollut Res 31, 565–578 (2024).

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