Skip to main content


Log in

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles improve element uptake, antioxidant properties, and essential oil productivity of Melissa officinalis L. seedlings under in vitro drought stress

  • Research Article
  • Published:
Environmental Science and Pollution Research Aims and scope Submit manuscript


In vitro drought stress has a considerable impact on the mass production of active compounds in medicinal plants. Nevertheless, photosynthesis, nutrient uptake, and protein synthesis may be negatively affected by drought, which results in poor growth. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have recently been shown to play an important role in increasing nutrient uptake, resistance to various environmental stresses, and better plant growth. Regarding the importance of pharmaceutical metabolites of Melissa officinalis L., this experiment aimed to assess the role of TiO2 NPs in improving physiological responses and phytochemical properties in M. officinalis under in vitro drought stress. For this, two-week-old seedlings were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0, 50, and 100 mg L−1 TiO2 NPs and 0, 3, and 6% (w/v) polyethylene glycol (PEG). Two weeks after treatments, a reduction of chlorophyll, protein content, essential elements, and enhancement of H2O2 and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were seen as a result of drought stress. It was observed that M. officinalis partially responded to the drought by increasing non-enzymatic antioxidants, including phenolics, flavonoids, and anthocyanin and ascorbate peroxidase activity. Moreover, PEG–induced drought stress increased some important essential oil content such as limonene, alpha-pinene, myrcene, γ-3-carene, citral, and carvacrol; however, the results showed that TiO2 NPs not only increased the quantity of essential oils but also led to tolerance to the drought stress by increasing photosynthetic pigments, antioxidant systems, absorption of essential nutrients, and decreasing H2O2 and MDA levels.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Similar content being viewed by others

Data availability

All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article.


Download references


This article is extracted from a research project that was funded by Payame Noor University.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Project administration, design of the study, revising, and final approval of the version to be published were carried out by Roya Razavizadeh. Investigation, data curation, formal analysis, and writing—original draft and editing were performed by Fatemeh Adabavazeh. Preparation of plant samples and laboratory materials was performed by Zahra Mosayebi. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Roya Razavizadeh.

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval and consent to participate

All authors carefully read and approved the study.

Consent for publication

All authors are agreed to publish the manuscript.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Responsible Editor: Gangrong Shi

Publisher's note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Springer Nature or its licensor (e.g. a society or other partner) holds exclusive rights to this article under a publishing agreement with the author(s) or other rightsholder(s); author self-archiving of the accepted manuscript version of this article is solely governed by the terms of such publishing agreement and applicable law.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Razavizadeh, R., Adabavazeh, F. & Mosayebi, Z. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles improve element uptake, antioxidant properties, and essential oil productivity of Melissa officinalis L. seedlings under in vitro drought stress. Environ Sci Pollut Res 30, 98020–98033 (2023).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: