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Globalization, institutions, and environmental quality in Middle East and North African countries

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Sustainable development has received significant attention due to rapidly rising environmental issues, and finding solutions to these issues caused by various indicators are the subject of research nowadays. To this end, the increasing globalization and institutional quality to address environmental challenges have become hot subject and need better attention. Accordingly, this study enhances the literature by examining the role of political stability, the rule of law, control of corruption, and globalization on the environment for 14 Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) countries between 1996 & 2018, applying cross-sectional augmented autoregressive distributed lags (CS-ARDL) approach. The short and long-run estimates obtained from CS-ARDL confirm that globalization, the rule of law, political stability, and corruption control significantly reduce carbon emissions (CO2e). Contrarily, energy production, financial development, and economic growth have significant positive effects, suggesting they raise CO2e. The study also estimates a robustness analysis with the Driscoll-Kraay estimator, confirming results on signs and magnitude identical to those with CS-ARDL. These results drive the MENA countries to adhere to environmental standards to reduce CO2e strictly. Environmental-friendly industrial techniques should be employed, mainly while producing. The governments of these countries should facilitate the governance process through the globalization of environmental products to ensure long-term environmental sustainability.

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  1. Visit for further details.

  2. This supports the findings of (Shahbaz et al. 2013, 2015), who stated that globalization influences income, scale, and technique effects to improve environmental quality in Turkey and India.



Cross-Sectionally Augmented Dickey-Fuller


Common Correlated Effect

CD :

Cross-sectional Dependence


Cross-sectionally Augmented Im, Pesaran and Shin

CO 2 e :

Carbon dioxide emissions


Cross-sectionally augmented ARDL

DK :


DH :



Environmental Kuznets Curve


Foreign Direct Investment


Gross Domestic Product


Homogeneous Non-Causal Relationship


Im, Pesaran and Shin


Middle East and North Africa

SH :

Slop Homogeneity


Sub-Saharan Africa


World development indicators


World Governance Indicators


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Authors and Affiliations



Deng XU: conceptualization, methodology, formal analysis, software, writing- original draft preparation, and investigation. Jamal Hussain: data Curation, investigation, visualization, writing- reviewing and editing.

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Correspondence to Jamal Hussain.

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Responsible Editor: Eyup Dogan

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• We examine the factors of CO2 emissions of MENA countries from 1996-2018.

• We applied advanced panel data approaches.

• Results suggested that rule of law decreases carbon emissions.

• Energy production and financial development increases carbon emissions.

• Globalization is found helpful in controlling carbon emissions.

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Xu, D., Hussain, J. Globalization, institutions, and environmental quality in Middle East and North African countries. Environ Sci Pollut Res 30, 68951–68968 (2023).

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