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Evaluation of the disinfection effect and mechanism of SO4•− and HO UV/persulfate salts

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Abstract

Although ultraviolet (UV) and persulfate (PS) have been widely used in water disinfection process, their incompleteness of disinfection, such as inducing the production of viable but non-culturable cells (VBNC), has attracted extensive attention. In this study, the disinfection effect of combined UV and PS was evaluated, and the roles of SO4•− and HO radicals in UV/PS disinfection were also analyzed. UV/PS more effectively inactivated cells and reduced the number of culturable cells. Also, the test of bacterial dark activation suggested that UV/PS disinfection inhibited the recovery of VBNC bacteria. The mechanisms of UV/PS disinfection were the increase of membrane permeability and oxidative stress, where SO4•− radicals played more role than HO radicals. Furthermore, UV/PS disinfection more significantly perturbed the metabolism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (p < 0.05), mainly involving glyoxylate and dicarboxylic acid metabolism, aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, Alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, and citric acid cycle (TCA cycle). In short, UV/PS disinfection can not only significantly reduce the number of culturable bacteria (kill bacteria) but also inhibits the recovery of VBNC bacteria.

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Data Availability

The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.

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Acknowledgements

We would like to thank Haiyan Yu, Yan Zhang, and Zhifeng Li from State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology of Shandong University for help and guidance in GC-MS/MS, micro-Raman spectrometer, and flow cytometry.

Funding

The National Natural Science Foundation of China (42077391) and Guangdong Foundation for Program of Science and Technology Research (2020B1212060053) have funded this research.

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Authors

Contributions

Zaihui Huang: experiment, writing—original draft, data curation, investigation, methodology; Zheng Qi: investigation, methodology, formal analysis; Chunguang Liu: experiment design, data analysis, and writing.

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Correspondence to Chunguang Liu.

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Huang, Z., Qi, Z. & Liu, C. Evaluation of the disinfection effect and mechanism of SO4•− and HO UV/persulfate salts. Environ Sci Pollut Res 30, 52380–52389 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-023-26120-3

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-023-26120-3

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