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Emission of greenhouse gases due to anthropogenic activities: an environmental assessment from paddy rice fields


Paddy rice fields (PRFs) are a potent source of global atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs), particularly CH4 and CO2. Despite socio-environmental importance, the emission of GHGs has rarely been measured from Haryana agricultural fields. We have used new technology to track ambient concentration and soil flux of GHGs (CH4, CO2, and H2O) near Karnal’s Kuchpura agricultural fields, India. The observations were conducted using a Trace Gas Analyzer (TGA) and Soil Flux Smart Chamber over various parts, i.e., disturbed and undisturbed zone of PRFs. The undisturbed zone usually accounts for a maximum ambient concentration of ~ 2434.95 ppb and 492.46 ppm of CH4 and CO2, respectively, higher than the average global concentration. Soil flux of CH4 and CO2 was highly varied, ranging from 0.18 to 11.73 nmol m−2 s−1 and 0.13–4.98 μmol m−2 s−1, respectively. An insignificant correlation was observed between ambient concentration and soil flux of GHGs from PRFs. Waterlogged (i.e., irrigated and rain-fed) soil contributed slightly lower CH4 flux to the atmosphere. Interestingly, such an agricultural field shows low CO2 and CH4 fluxes compared to the field affected by the backfilling of rice husk ash (RHA). This article suggests farmers not mix RHA to increase soil fertility because of their adverse environmental effects. Also, this study is relevant in understanding the GHGs’ emissions from paddy rice fields to the atmosphere, their impacts, and mitigating measures for a healthy ecosystem.

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The datasets/materials used and/or analyzed for the present manuscript are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.


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The authors thank the Director of Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology (WIHG), Dehradun, for providing the necessary facilities and support to carry out this study. The authors would also like to thank the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India, for providing the requisite funds to carry out this research.


The authors declare that no funds, grants, or other support were received during the preparation of this manuscript.

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Ayushi Baiswar contributed to the collection of samples and prepared the first draft. Jairam S. Yadav contributed to the collection of samples and finalized the manuscript. Kalachand Sain contributed to the corrections and edits in the manuscript. Rakesh Bhambri prepared the map. Arjun Pandey participated in the field. Sameer K. Tiwari contributed to the conceptualization of idea. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Sameer K. Tiwari.

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Baiswar, A., Yadav, J.S., Sain, K. et al. Emission of greenhouse gases due to anthropogenic activities: an environmental assessment from paddy rice fields. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2022).

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  • GHGs
  • Paddy rice fields
  • Rice-husk ash
  • Smart Chamber
  • Karnal