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Phosphorus removal and recovery: state of the science and challenges

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Abstract

Phosphorus is one of the main nutrients required for all life. Phosphorus as phosphate form plays an important role in different cellular processes. Entrance of phosphorus in the environment leads to serious ecological problems including water quality problems and soil pollution. Furthermore, it may cause eutrophication as well as harmful algae blooms (HABs) in aquatic environments. Several physical, chemical, and biological methods have been presented for phosphorus removal and recovery. In this review, there is an overview of phosphorus role in nature provided, available removal processes are discussed, and each of them is explained in detail. Chemical precipitation, ion exchange, membrane separation, and adsorption can be listed as the most used methods. Identifying advantages of these technologies will allow the performance of phosphorus removal systems to be updated, optimized, evaluate the treatment cost and benefits, and support select directions for further action. Two main applications of biochar and nanoscale materials are recommended.

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The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author on request.

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Mohammad Ali Zahed, Samira Salehi, and Hossein Farraji: Conceptualization, writing–original draft, and project administration. Yasaman Tabari, Saba Ataei-Kachooei, Ali Akbar Zinatizadeh, Nima Kamali, and Mohammad Mahjouri: Writing–review and editing and investigation.

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Correspondence to Samira Salehi.

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Zahed, M.A., Salehi, S., Tabari, Y. et al. Phosphorus removal and recovery: state of the science and challenges. Environ Sci Pollut Res 29, 58561–58589 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-21637-5

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