Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

An analysis of the environmental impacts of ethnic diversity, financial development, economic growth, urbanization, and energy consumption: fresh evidence from less-developed countries

  • Research Article
  • Published:
Environmental Science and Pollution Research Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Improving the quality of environmental indicators has become a global concern that necessitates the identification of possible channels through which environmental welfare can be enhanced worldwide. Against this backdrop, this current study aims to elucidate the environmental effects of ethnic diversity, controlling for financial development, urbanization, economic growth, and energy consumption in the context of 51 less-developed countries during the period from 1996 to 2016. For measuring the environmental impacts, we use both the ecological footprint and carbon dioxide emission figures of these countries. Overall, the cointegration analysis confirms the existence of long-run relationships among the study variables. Besides, the regression analysis reveals that ethnic diversity deteriorates environmental quality by surging the ecological footprint and carbon dioxide emission levels of the selected nations. Similarly, financial development and energy consumption are found to impose identical adversities on the environment while urbanization is evidenced to ensure environmental welfare. Lastly, for both the environmental indicators considered in this study, the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis is verified from the findings. Hence, considering these key outcomes, a set of relevant environmental welfare-related policy interventions are recommended in the context of less-developed countries.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1

Source: authors’ computation

Similar content being viewed by others

Data availability

The data will be provided on a reasonable request to the corresponding author.

Notes

  1. The details regarding the construction of the financial development index are discussed later.

  2. The B-B GMM technique is also known as the system GMM technique.

References

  • Abbasi KR, Hussain K, Haddad AM, Salman A, Ozturk I (2022) The role of financial development and technological innovation towards sustainable development in Pakistan: fresh insights from consumption and territory-based emissions. Technol Forecast Soc Chang 176:121444

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Adusei M (2012) Financial development and economic growth: is Schumpeter right? J Econ Manag Trade 2:265–278. https://doi.org/10.9734/BJEMT/2012/1865

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ahmad M, Jiang P, Murshed M, Shehzad K, Akram R, Cui L, Khan Z (2021a) Modelling the dynamic linkages between eco-innovation, urbanization, economic growth and ecological footprints for G7 countries: does financial globalization matter? Sustain Cities Soc 70:102881

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ahmad M, Muslija A, Satrovic E (2021b) Does economic prosperity lead to environmental sustainability in developing economies? Environmental Kuznets curve theory. Environ Sci Pollut Res 28(18):22588–22601

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ahmad N, Amin S (2019) Does ethnic polarization stimulate or relegate trade and environmental performance? A global perspective. Environ Dev Sustain 22(7):6513–6536

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ahmed Z, Wang Z, Mahmood F, Hafeez M, Ali N (2019) Does globalization increase the ecological footprint? Empirical evidence from Malaysia. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26(18):18565–18582

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ajmi AN, Inglesi-Lotz R (2021) Revisiting the Kuznets curve hypothesis for Tunisia: carbon dioxide vs Ecological footprint. Energy Sources Part B 16(5):406–419

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Alesina A, Baqir R, Easterly W (1999) Public goods and ethnic divisions. Q J Econ 114:1243–1284

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Alesina A, Devleeschauwer A, Easterly W, Kurlat S, Wacziarg R (2003) Fractionalization. J Econ. Growth 8(2):155–194

    Google Scholar 

  • Alesina A, Gennaioli C, Lovo S (2019) Public goods and ethnic diversity: evidence from deforestation in Indonesia. Economica 86:32–66

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Alesina A, Zhuravskaya E (2011) Segregation and the quality of government in a cross section of countries. Am Econ Rev 101:1872–1911

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ali R, Bakhsh K, Yasin MA (2019) Impact of urbanization on CO2 emissions in emerging economy: evidence from Pakistan. Sust Cities Society 48

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Anwar A, Sinha A, Sharif A, Siddique M, Irshad S, Anwar W, Malik S (2022) The nexus between urbanization, renewable energy consumption, financial development, and CO2 emissions: evidence from selected Asian countries. Environ Dev Sustain 24(5):6556–6576

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Arellano M, Bond S (1991) Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations. Rev Econ Stud 58:277–297

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bagliani M, Bravo G, Dalmazzone S (2008) A consumption-based approach to environmental Kuznets curves using the ecological footprint indicator. Ecol Econ 65:650–661

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baloch MA, Zhang J, Iqbal K, Iqbal Z (2019) The effect of financial development on ecological footprint in BRI countries: evidence from panel data estimation. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26(6):6199–6208

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baltagi BH (2008) Econometric analysis of panel data, vol 4. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-53953-5

  • Banerjee S, Murshed M (2020) Do Emissions implied in Net Export validate the Pollution Haven Conjecture? Analysis of G7 and BRICS countries. Intl J Sust Econ 12(3):297–319. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJSE.2020.10033008

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Berk I, Onater-Isberk E, Yetkiner H (2022) A unified theory and evidence on CO2 emissions convergence. Environ Sci Pollut Res 29(14):20675–20693

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bhowmik R, Syed QR, Apergis N, Alola AA, Gai Z (2022) Applying a dynamic ARDL approach to the environmental Phillips curve (EPC) hypothesis amid monetary, fiscal, and trade policy uncertainty in the USA. Environ Sci Pollut Res 29(10):14914–14928

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Blundell R, Bond S (1998) Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models. J Econ 87:115–143

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Blundell R, Bond S (2000) GMM estimation with persistent panel data: an application to production functions. Econometric Rev 19(3):321–340

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Breusch TS, Pagan AR (1980) The Lagrange multiplier test and its applications to model specification in econometrics. Rev Econ Stud 47:239–253

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Caglar AE, Guloglu B, Gedikli A (2022) Moving towards sustainable environmental development for BRICS: Investigating the asymmetric effect of natural resources on CO2. Sust Dev. https://doi.org/10.1002/sd.2318

  • Caglar AE, Mert M, Boluk G (2021) Testing the role of information and communication technologies and renewable energy consumption in ecological footprint quality: Evidence from world top 10 pollutant footprint countries. J Clean Prod 298:126784

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Caviglia-Harris JL, Chambers D, Kahn JR (2009) Taking the “U” out of Kuznets: a comprehensive analysis of the EKC and environmental degradation. Ecol Econ 68:1149–1159

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Charfeddine L (2017) The impact of energy consumption and economic development on Ecological Footprint and CO2 emissions: evidence from a Markov switching equilibrium correction model. Energy Econ 65:355–374

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Charfeddine L, Kahia M (2019) Impact of renewable energy consumption and financial development on CO2 emissions and economic growth in the MENA region: a panel vector autoregressive (PVAR) analysis. Renew Energy 139:198–213

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chen S, Saleem N, Bari MW (2019) Financial development and its moderating role in environmental Kuznets curve: evidence from Pakistan. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26(29):19305–9319

    Google Scholar 

  • Chien F, Hsu CC, Ozturk I, Sharif A, Sadiq M (2022) The role of renewable energy and urbanization towards greenhouse gas emission in top Asian countries: evidence from advance panel estimations. Renew Energy 186:207–216

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chishti MZ, Ahmed Z, Murshed M, Namkambe HH, Ulucak R (2021) The asymmetric associations between foreign direct investment inflows, terrorism, CO2 emissions, and economic growth: a tale of two shocks. Environ Sci Pollut Res 28(48):69253–69271

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Churchill SA, Ivanovski K, Bhattacharya M (2019) The role of ethnic diversity in sustainable environmental growth: new evidence across different income regions. Appl Econ 51:398–408

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Collier P (2001) Implications of Ethnic Diversity. Econ Policy 16:128–166

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Creane S, Goyal R, Mobarak AM, Sab R (2006) Measuring financial development in the Middle East and North Africa: a new database. IMF Staff Pap 53:479–511. https://doi.org/10.2307/30035923

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Danish, Ulucak R, Khan SUD (2020) Determinants of the ecological footprint: role of renewable energy, natural resources, and urbanization. Sustain Cities Soc 54:101996

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Das J, DiRienzo CE (2010) Is ethnic diversity good for the environment? A Cross-Country Analysis. J Environ Dev 19:91–113

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dauda L, Long X, Mensah CN, Salman M (2019) The effects of economic growth and innovation on CO2 emissions in different regions. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26(15):15028–15038

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Destek MA, Sarkodie SA (2019) Investigation of environmental Kuznets curve for ecological footprint: the role of energy and financial development. Sci Total Environ 650:2483–2489

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Destek MA, Sinha A (2020) Renewable, non-renewable energy consumption, economic growth, trade openness and ecological footprint: evidence from organisation for economic Co-operation and development countries. J Clean Prod 242:118537

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dietz T, Rosa EA (1994) Rethinking the environmental impacts of population, affluence and technology. Human Ecol Rev 1:277–300

    Google Scholar 

  • Dogan E, Taspinar N, Gokmenoglu KK (2019) Determinants of ecological footprint in MINT countries. Energy Environ 30(6):1065–1086

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dogan E, Inglesi-Lotz R (2020) The impact of economic structure to the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis: evidence from European countries. Environ Sci Pollut Res 27(11):12717–12724

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ehrlich PR, Holdren JP (1971) Impact of Population Growth. Science 171:1212–1217

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Farooq S, Ozturk I, Majeed MT, Akram R (2022) Globalization and CO2 emissions in the presence of EKC: a global panel data analysis. Gondwana Res 106:367–378

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Feridun M, Sezgin S (2008) Regional underdevelopment and terrorism: the case of south eastern Turkey. Defence and Peace Economics 19:225–233

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Florida R, Gates G (2003) Technology and tolerance: the importance of diversity to high-technology growth. In: The city as an entertainment machine. Emerald Group Publishing Limited. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1479-3520(03)09007-X

  • GFN (2022) Global Footprint Network. Available at https://www.footprintnetwork.org (accessed on 22.5.2022)

  • Godil DI, Sharif A, Rafique S, Jermsittiparsert K (2020) The asymmetric effect of tourism, financial development, and globalization on ecological footprint in Turkey. Environ Sci Pollut Res 27(32):40109–40120

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Grossman GM, Krueger AB (1991) Environmental impacts of a North American free trade agreement. Natl Bur Econ Res. https://doi.org/10.3386/w3914

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Güney T (2022) Solar energy, governance and CO2 emissions. Renew Energy 184:791–798

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hassan ST, Xia E, Khan NH, Shah SMA (2019) Economic growth, natural resources, and ecological footprints: evidence from Pakistan. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26:2929–2938

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Huang Y, Haseeb M, Usman M, Ozturk I (2022) Dynamic association between ICT, renewable energy, economic complexity and ecological footprint: is there any difference between E-7 (developing) and G-7 (developed) countries? Technol Soc 68:101853

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Im KS, Pesaran MH, Shin Y (2003) Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels. J Econ 115:53–74

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Islam M, Alam M, Ahmed F, Al-Amin AQ (2022) Economic growth and environmental pollution nexus in Bangladesh: revisiting the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis. Int J Environ Stud. https://doi.org/10.1080/00207233.2021.2017169

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jahanger A (2022) Impact of globalization on CO2 emissions based on EKC hypothesis in developing world: the moderating role of human capital. Environ Sci Pollut Res 29(14):20731–20751

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kaiser HF (1974) An Index of Factorial Simplicity. Psychometrika 39:31–36

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Katircioğlu S, Katircioğlu S (2018) Testing the role of urban development in the conventional environmental Kuznets curve: evidence from Turkey. Appl Econ Lett 25:741–746

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Katircioğlu ST, Taşpinar N (2017) Testing the moderating role of financial development in an environmental Kuznets curve: empirical evidence from Turkey. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 68:572–586

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Khan S, Murshed M, Ozturk I, Khudoykulov K (2022) The roles of energy efficiency improvement, renewable electricity production, and financial inclusion in stimulating environmental sustainability in the Next Eleven countries. Renew Energy. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2022.05.065

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kihombo S, Ahmed Z, Chen S, Adebayo TS, Kirikkaleli D (2021) Linking financial development, economic growth, and ecological footprint: what is the role of technological innovation? Environ Sci Pollut Res 28(43):61235–61245

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kocoglu M, Awan A, Tunc A, Aslan A (2022) The nonlinear links between urbanization and CO2 in 15 emerging countries: evidence from unconditional quantile and threshold regression. Environ Sci Pollut Res 29(12):18177–18188

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Le HP, Ozturk I (2020) The impacts of globalization, financial development, government expenditures, and institutional quality on CO2 emissions in the presence of environmental Kuznets curve. Environ Sci Pollut Res 27(18):22680–22697

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lin X, Zhao Y, Ahmad M, Ahmed Z, Rjoub H, Adebayo TS (2021) Linking innovative human capital, economic growth, and CO2 emissions: an empirical study based on Chinese provincial panel data. Int J Environ Res Public Health 18(16):8503

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Liu Y, Sadiq F, Ali W, Kumail T (2022) Does tourism development, energy consumption, trade openness and economic growth matters for ecological footprint: testing the environmental Kuznets curve and pollution haven hypothesis for Pakistan. Energy 245:123208. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2022.123208

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lu WC (2020) The interplay among ecological footprint, real income, energy consumption, and trade openness in 13 Asian countries. Environ Sci Pollut Res 27(36):45148–45160

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Madni GR (2018) Probing institutional quality through ethnic diversity, income inequality and public spending. Soc Indic Res 142(2):581–595

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mehmood U, Agyekum EB, Uhunamure SE, Shale K, Mariam A (2022) Evaluating the Influences of natural resources and ageing people on CO2 emissions in G-11 nations: application of CS-ARDL Approach. Int J Environ Res Public Health 19(3):1449

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mikayilov JI, Mukhtarov S, Mammadov J, Azizov M (2019) Re-evaluating the environmental impacts of tourism: does EKC exist? Environ Sci Pollut Res 26:19389–19402

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Montalvo JG, Reynal-Querol M (2005) Ethnic Diversity and Economic Development. J Dev Econ 76:293–323

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mrabet Z, Alsamara M (2017) Testing the Kuznets curve hypothesis for Qatar: a comparison between carbon dioxide and ecological footprint. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 70:1366–1375

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Munir K, Ameer A (2022) Assessing nonlinear impact of urbanization, economic growth, technology, and trade on environment: evidence from African and Asian emerging economies. GeoJournal 87:2195–2208

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Murshed M, Ali SR, Banerjee S (2021) Consumption of liquefied petroleum gas and the EKC hypothesis in South Asia: evidence from cross-sectionally dependent heterogeneous panel data with structural breaks. Energy Ecol Environ 6:353–377. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40974-020-00185-z

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Murshed M, Ahmed Z, Alam MS, Mahmood H, Rehman A, Dagar V (2021) Reinvigorating the role of clean energy transition for achieving a low-carbon economy: evidence from Bangladesh. Environ Sci Pollut Res 28(47):67689–67710

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Murshed M, Khan S, Rahman AA (2022) Roadmap for achieving energy sustainability in Sub-Saharan Africa: the mediating role of energy use efficiency. Energy Rep 8:4535–4552

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Nathaniel S, Nwodo O, Adediran A, Sharma G, Shah M, Adeleye N (2019) Ecological footprint, urbanization, and energy consumption in South Africa: including the excluded. Environ Sci Pollut Res 26(26):27168–27179

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Omri A, Chaibi A (2014) Nuclear energy, renewable energy, and economic growth in developed and developing countries: a modelling analysis from simultaneous-equation models. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 42:1012–1022

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Onifade ST (2022) Retrospecting on resource abundance in leading oil-producing African countries: how valid is the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in a sectoral composition framework? Environ Sci Pollut Res. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-19575-3

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ozcan B, Apergis N, Shahbaz M (2018) A revisit of the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis for Turkey: new evidence from bootstrap rolling window causality. Environ Sci Pollut Res 25(32):32381–32394

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Papyrakis E (2013) Environmental performance in socially fragmented countries. Environ Resource Econ 55:119–140

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pata UK, Samour A (2022) Do renewable and nuclear energy enhance environmental quality in France? A new EKC approach with the load capacity factor. Prog Nucl Energy 149:104249

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pesaran MH (2007) A Simple Panel Unit Root Test in the Presence of Cross-Section Dependence. J Appl Econ 22:265–312

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pesaran MH (2021) General diagnostic tests for cross-sectional dependence in panels. Empirical Economics 60(1):13–50

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pincheira R, Zuniga F, Neudorfer P (2021) Carbon Kuznets curve: a dynamic empirical approach for a panel data. Account Fin 61(4):5523–5541

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Poom A, Ahas R (2016) How does the environmental load of household consumption depend on residential location? Sustainability 8:799

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Poumanyvong P, Kaneko S (2010) Does urbanization lead to less energy use and lower CO2 emissions? A Cross-Country Analysis. Ecol Econ 70:434–444

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Raheem ID, Tiwari AK, Balsalobre-Lorente D (2020) The role of ICT and financial development in CO2 emissions and economic growth. Environ Sci Pollut Res 27(2):1912–1922

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Razzaq A, Fatima T, Murshed M (2021) Asymmetric effects of tourism development and green innovation on economic growth and carbon emissions in Top 10 GDP Countries. J Environ Planning Manage. https://doi.org/10.1080/09640568.2021.1990029

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rees WE (1992) Ecological footprints and appropriated carrying capacity: what urban economics leaves out Environment and urbanization. Environ Urb 4:121–130

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rehman A, Ma H, Chishti MZ, Ozturk I, Irfan M, Ahmad M (2021) Asymmetric investigation to track the effect of urbanization, energy utilization, fossil fuel energy and CO2 emission on economic efficiency in China: another outlook. Environ Sci Pollut Res 28(14):17319–17330

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ren YS, Apergis N, Ma C, Baltas K, Jiang Y, Liu JL (2021) FDI, economic growth, and carbon emissions of the Chinese steel industry: new evidence from a 3SLS model. Environ Sci Pollut Res 28(37):52547–52564

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Roodman D (2009) How to do xtabond2: an introduction to difference and system GMM in Stata. The Stata J 9(1):86–136

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rupasingha A, Goetz SJ, Debertin DL, Pagoulatos A (2004) The environmental Kuznets curve for US counties: A spatial econometric analysis with extensions. Papers in Reg Sci 83(2):407–424

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sadiq M, Shinwari R, Usman M, Ozturk I, Maghyereh AI (2022) Linking nuclear energy, human development and carbon emission in BRICS region: do external debt and financial globalization protect the environment? Nucl Eng Technol. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.net.2022.03.024

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Salahuddin M, Alam K, Ozturk I, Sohag K (2018) The effects of electricity consumption, economic growth, financial development and foreign direct investment on CO2 emissions in Kuwait. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 81:2002–2010

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Salman M, Zha D, Wang G (2022) Interplay between urbanization and ecological footprints: Differential roles of indigenous and foreign innovations in ASEAN-4. Environ Sci Policy 127:161–180

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shafik N (1994) Economic development and environmental quality: an econometric analysis. Oxford Econ Papers 46:757–773

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shahbaz M, Van Hoang TH, Mahalik MK, Roubaud D (2017) Energy consumption, financial development and economic growth in India: new evidence from a nonlinear and asymmetric analysis. Energy Econ 63:199–212

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shahzad U, Fareed Z, Shahzad F, Shahzad K (2021) Investigating the nexus between economic complexity, energy consumption and ecological footprint for the United States: new insights from quantile methods. J Clean Prod 279:123806

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sharif A, Baris-Tuzemen O, Uzuner G, Ozturk I, Sinha A (2020) Revisiting the role of renewable and non-renewable energy consumption on Turkey’s ecological footprint: Evidence from Quantile ARDL approach. Sustain Cities Soc 57:102138

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sharma R, Sinha A, Kautish P (2021) Does renewable energy consumption reduce ecological footprint? Evidence from eight developing countries of Asia. J Clean Prod 285:124867

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sufyanullah K, Ahmad KA, Ali MAS (2022) Does emission of carbon dioxide is impacted by urbanization? An empirical study of urbanization, energy consumption, economic growth and carbon emissions-Using ARDL bound testing approach. Energy Policy 164:112908

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Tu Z, Feng C, Zhao X (2022) Revisiting energy efficiency and energy related CO2 emissions: Evidence from RCEP economies. Economic Research-Ekonomska Istraživanja. https://doi.org/10.1080/1331677X.2022.2038651

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tyavambiza T, Nyangara D (2015) Financial and monetary reforms and the finance-growth relationship in Zimbabwe. Int J Econ Financ Issues 5(2):590–602

    Google Scholar 

  • Ulucak R, Bilgili F (2018) A reinvestigation of EKC model by ecological footprint measurement for high, middle and low income countries. J Clean Prod 188:144–157

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Usman A, Ozturk I, Naqvi SMMA, Ullah S, Javed MI (2022) Revealing the nexus between nuclear energy and ecological footprint in STIRPAT model of advanced economies: Fresh evidence from novel CS-ARDL model. Prog Nucl Energy 148:104220

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Wackernagel M, Rees W (1998) Our ecological footprint: reducing human impact on the earth, vol 9. New Society Publishers

  • Westerlund J (2007) Testing for error correction in panel data. Oxford Bull Econ Stat 69(6):709–748

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Westerlund J (2008) Panel cointegration tests of the Fisher effect. J Appl Economet 23(2):193–233

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • World Bank (2022) World development indicators. Available at https://databank.worldbank.org/source/world-development-indicators (accessed on 22.5.2022)

  • Yasin I, Ahmad N, Chaudhary MA (2020) Catechizing the environmental-impression of urbanization, financial development, and political institutions: a circumstance of ecological footprints in 110 developed and less-developed countries. Soc Indic Res 147:621–649

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yasin I, Ahmad N, Chaudhary MA (2020b) The impact of financial development, political institutions, and urbanization on environmental degradation: evidence from 59 less-developed economies. Environ Dev Sustain 23:6698–6721. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10668-020-00885-w

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zeraibi A, Ahmed Z, Shehzad K, Murshed M, Nathaniel SP, Mahmood H (2022) Revisiting the EKC hypothesis by assessing the complementarities between fiscal, monetary, and environmental development policies in China. Environ Sci Pollut Res 29(16):23545–23560

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zia S, Noor MH, Khan MK, Bibi M, Godil DI, Quddoos MU, Anser MK (2021) Striving towards environmental sustainability: how natural resources, human capital, financial development, and economic growth interact with ecological footprint in China. Environ Sci Pollut Res 28(37):52499–52513

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

IY conceptualized, conducted the econometric analysis, wrote the original draft, and analyzed the findings. SN wrote the literature review and the conclusions and recommendations section. HM conducted the econometric analysis and analyzed the findings. MM conceptualized, wrote the introduction, conducted the literature review, analyzed the findings, wrote the original draft, reviewed the draft, and compiled the overall manuscript. MAA prepared the methodology, analyzed the findings, and conducted the literature review. GRM reviewed the article.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Muntasir Murshed.

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not applicable.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Responsible Editor: Ilhan Ozturk

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Yasin, I., Naseem, S., Anwar, M.A. et al. An analysis of the environmental impacts of ethnic diversity, financial development, economic growth, urbanization, and energy consumption: fresh evidence from less-developed countries. Environ Sci Pollut Res 29, 79306–79319 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-21295-7

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-21295-7

Keywords

Navigation