Skip to main content

Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 data for mapping plastic-covered greenhouse farming areas: a study from Dalat City (Lam Dong Province), Vietnam

A Correction to this article was published on 24 June 2022

This article has been updated


Plastic-covered greenhouse (PCG) farming has been practiced worldwide, particularly in highland areas, for planting fruits and garden plants. Highland areas in south-central Vietnam have been witnessing an expansion of PCG farming in recent decades. For sustainable management of plastic-covered greenhouse farming areas, a proper and continuous monitoring of their spatial patterns is necessary. In this study, we used spaceborne multispectral imagery (Landsat-8 OLI and Sentinel-2 MSI) for automatic detection and mapping of plastic covered greenhouse farming areas in and surrounding areas of Dalat City in Lam Dong province, south-central Vietnam. Unsupervised (K-Means algorithm) and automatic delineation using spectral indices were applied to the Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 data for mapping plastic-covered greenhouses in Dalat City and surrounding areas. The results were evaluated using field data; automatic spectral index-based mapping of PCGs using Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 data was found as robust in terms of the overall accuracy. The overall accuracies of PCG maps derived from Sentinel-2 and Landsat-8 data by applying spectral indices were 90.8% and 88.7%, respectively, and those of unsupervised K-Means classification were estimated as 73.2% and 71.7%, respectively. This study estimated that about 2425 ha of plastic-covered greenhouses existed within in Dalat City in 2020.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5

Data availability

All data used in this study are available from public domain resources.

Change history


Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations



BKV designed the study. BKV and QNX contributed equally to the manuscript text.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Quang Ngo Xuan.

Ethics declarations

Hereby, we consciously assure that for the manuscript/insert title/, the following is fulfilled: (1) this material is the authors’ own original work, which has not been previously published elsewhere. (2) The paper is not currently being considered for publication elsewhere. (3) The paper reflects the authors’ own research and analysis in a truthful and complete manner. (4) The paper properly credits the meaningful contributions of co-authors and co-researchers. (5) The results are appropriately placed in the context of prior and existing research. (6) All sources used are properly disclosed (correct citation). Literally copying of text must be indicated as such by using quotation marks and giving proper reference. (7) All authors have been personally and actively involved in substantial work leading to the paper, and will take public responsibility for its content.

Ethics approval and consent to participate

Not applicable.

Consent for publication

Not applicable.

Competing interests

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Responsible Editor: Philippe Garrigues

Publisher's note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Veettil, B.K., Xuan, Q.N. Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 data for mapping plastic-covered greenhouse farming areas: a study from Dalat City (Lam Dong Province), Vietnam. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2022).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI:


  • High-tech agriculture
  • Plastic greenhouse farming
  • Plastic greenhouse index
  • Plastic remote sensing
  • Automatic greenhouse mapping