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Utilization of agricultural waste biomass and recycling toward circular bioeconomy

  • Recent Innovations in Clean and Green Conversion Technologies Dealing with Air, Water, Biomass, and Soil
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Abstract

The major global concern on energy is focused on conventional fossil resources. The burning of fossil fuels is an origin of greenhouse gas emissions resulting in the utmost threat to the environment and subsequently which leads to global climate changes. As far as sustainability is concerned, fuels and materials derived from organic or plant wastes overcome this downside establishing the solution to the fossil resource crisis. In this context, exploration of agricultural residue appears to be a suitable alternative of non-renewable resources to support the environmental feasibility and meet the high energy crisis. The use of agricultural waste as a feedstock for the biorefinery approach emerges to be an eco-friendly process for the production of biofuel and value-added chemicals, intensifying energy security. Therefore, a prospective choice of this renewable biomass for the synthesis of green fuel and other green biochemicals comes up with a favorable outcome in terms of cost-effectiveness and sustainability. Exploiting different agricultural biomass and exploring various biomass conversion techniques, biorefinery generates bioenergy in a strategic way which eventually fits in a circular bioeconomy. Sources and production of agricultural waste are critically explained in this paper, which provides a path for further value addition by various technologies. Biorefinery solutions, along with a life cycle assessment of agricultural waste biomass toward a wide array of value-added products aiding the bioeconomy, are summarized in this paper.

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Data availability

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Abbreviations

2G:

2Nd generation

BIRAC:

Biotechnology Industry Research Assisted Council

C, H, N:

Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen

CAGR:

Compound annual growth rate

CBG:

Compressed biogas

CNG:

Compressed natural gas

CO2 :

Carbon dioxide

EC:

European Commission

EMC:

Equilibrium moisture content

GDP:

Grand development product

GHG:

Greenhouse gas

GPS:

Global position system

KBER:

Karnataka bioeconomy report

LCF:

Lignocellulosic fibers

MMT:

Million metric tonnes

OECD:

Organization for economic cooperation and development

USA:

United State of America

USD:

United State of America Dollar

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PKS made the conceptualization, design, and circular bioeconomy part of the manuscript. SS made the introduction part of manuscript. LB made a classification of an agro-industrial waste part of the manuscript. KS made Figs. 1 and 2. DM made Figs. 3, 4, and 5. KPS made editing, formatting, English, and manuscript correction. RKS made the potential of agro-waste for biorefineries part of the manuscript and all tables. RKA made the final revision. BP made formatting of references. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Rajesh K. Srivastava.

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Kumar Sarangi, P., Subudhi, S., Bhatia, L. et al. Utilization of agricultural waste biomass and recycling toward circular bioeconomy. Environ Sci Pollut Res 30, 8526–8539 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-022-20669-1

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